10/7/13

Star Talk Live with Buzz Aldrin part two!

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A launch attempt Thursday was called off because of problems with the Centaur second stage’s liquid hydrogen fueling system. It turned out to be a software glitch caused by a nearby lightning strike during a thunderstorm earlier in the day. There were no significant problems today and 58 minutes after climbing away through a clear blue sky, MRO was gently released from the rocket’s spent upper stage. Within 20 minutes, its two solar arrays and its main dish antenna unfolded and locked in place as planned. “It’s been a long road, it’s been five long years to get here and we’re up, we’re on our way to Mars,” said project manager James Graf of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. “We have a spacecraft that is performing nominarlly. … To an engineer, that means absolutely perfectly. It’s going great.” It will take the spacecraft seven months to reach its target, covering some 310 million miles in a long arc that will put MRO just in front of Mars next March. Flying over the planet’s south pole, MRO’s six main engines will have to fire for about 25 minutes, slowing the craft by some 2,200 mph. That will be just barely enough for Mars’ gravity to capture the craft in a long elliptical orbit. That first orbit will have a low point of about 186 miles and a high point of nearly 30,000 miles. Over the next six months, MRO’s thrusters will fire at the high point of each orbit, setting up repeated low-altitude passes through the planet’s extreme upper atmosphere. This aerobraking process will provide the atmospheric friction needed to slowly bleed off energy and circularize the orbit at an altitude of roughly 200 miles. It is a critical maneuver with little margin for error. NASA’s Mars Climate Orbiter was lost during orbit insertion in 1999, victim of an embarrassing navigation error. Richard Zurek was the project scientist then and now. “You don’t want to be a flyby, you want to go into orbit,” he said. “We’ve lost a spacecraft before at this point. So getting into orbit and then going through aerobraking (is difficult). We’ve got more margin with this spacecraft than with others. The big (solar) arrays give us more area and we’ve a little more flexible about balancing drag versus heating of the spacecraft.” After fine tuning the final orbit and calibrating MRO’s instruments, two years of full-time science observations will begin in November 2006. “It’s going to take us another 16 months before we’re really ready to open for business and then that firehose will be ready to start flowing,” said Zurek. The “firehose” is the expected 5.6-megabits-per-second flow of data from MRO’s instruments through big dish antenna. “If you want to start an intensive investigation of the planet itself, you have to start increasing your ability to cover vast portions of the surface, you need to increase that coverage and you need to do it at a much higher resolution,” said Graf. “When you couple those two things together, that translates into more and more data. So what we have done is taken a major step forward in the capability of this spacecraft to return data.” The Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey spacecraft currently in orbit around Mars send back data at a few thousand bits per second. With MRO, “we can get upwards of 34 terabtis of data being brought back in our two years of science operations. … We are going to be awash in data, which will enable us to better understand the planet as a whole.” One instrument that will consume a large part of MRO’s bandwidth is the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment, a 145-pound camera built by Ball Aerospace and managed by Alfred McEwen of the University of Arizona. The HiRSE camera is built around a 20-inch primary mirror and 14 CCD detectors. It is the largest camera ever built for operation beyond Earth’s orbit. Taking photographs across 3.5-mile-wide swaths of martian terrain, the HiRSE camera should be able to resolve surface features as small as 40 inches across. McEwen’s team plans to process 1,000 full-resolution images and another 9,000 lower-resolution pictures during the primary science phase of the mission. “It’s basically a big digital camera,” McEwen said. “Only this one has a primary mirror that’s half a meter in diameter and that will be the largest camera to ever leave Earth orbit, the largest telescope. It’s also a gigapixel camera, or a 1,200 megapixel camera. That translates into full-resolution images measuring up to 20,000 pixels wide and 60,000 pixels long. “To see all of a HiRSE image at full resolution, you would need 1,200 of your typical computer monitors stacked up,” McEwen said. MRO’s Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer will search for the spectral fingerprints of surface minerals that might have formed in the presence of water while another camera will snap images across broad 18.6-mile-wide swaths to provide context, showing features as small as a tennis court. The Mars Color Imager will provide global views of the entire planet and its changing atmosphere and the Mars Climate Sounder will monitor atmospheric water vapor, dust and ice. MRO is not content to focus on the visible parts of the red planet. The Shallow Subsurface Radar will penetrate up to a mile beneath the surface in search of buried ice deposits. “We want to see the details of both the surface composition, it’s structure, while we’re also monitoring the atmosphere, learning more about the present climate,” Zurek said. “We also want to look and follow up on a discovery the Odyssey spacecraft made that there is ice present in much of the upper yard or so of Mars’s surface. Now it’s not everywhere, but it is extensive and we want to know whether or not that layer of ice is just a thin layer that’s in equilibrium with today’s atmosphere or whether it represents just the tip of the iceberg, so to speak, a cryosphere that extends much deeper. “The Italian Space Agency has provided to NASA a radar that will look at the near subsurface, complimenting the radar that’s being flown today on the (European Space Agency’s) Mars Express,” Zurek said. “We’re looking for things near the surface deeper than a yard, up to a mile below the surface, depending on what the materials are like.” Michael Meyer, chief scientist for NASA’s Mars exploration program, said MRO will make major contributions in a variety of disciplines and help answer “whether or not life ever started on that planet and if not, why not?” “And then last but not least, (MRO will study) what kind of resources may be available and also, perhaps, what hazards might be there on Mars for future explorers. 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Photo credit: Lockheed Martin Corp.The polar-orbiting weather observatory for the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program was shot into space April 3 on an Atlas 5 rocket, but it ran into a problem extending its solar array boom.The satellite’s 10 solar cell panels, affixed on either side of the boom, generate electricity for the spacecraft’s systems and weather instruments.A spokesperson with the Air Force Space and Missile Systems Center’s Weather Directorate said Thursday the DMSP Flight 19 spacecraft was halfway through its initial “early orbit test” checkout phase under the management of a joint operations team including Air Force, NOAA and Lockheed Martin Corp. engineers.”The team is currently working through a single anomaly affecting the solar array boom,” the spokesperson said in a response to written questions. “The boom successfully deployed, but stopped approximately 30 degrees short of its nominal position, and did not lock into place.”The Air Force said the spacecraft is generating “ample power” to execute operations, and the ground team overseeing DMSP 19′s commissioning is on track to turn over the satellite for routine weather operations by the end of May.Once operational, DMSP 19 will be controlled by a joint NOAA and Air Force team at NOAA’s satellite operations center in Suitland, Md.Built by Lockheed Martin, the DMSP 19 spacecraft is the latest in a 52-year series of military weather satellites.It was finished in 1998 and put into long-term storage to be launched when the Air Force deemed it needed the satellite in orbit to replace aging platforms.Engineers put DMSP 19 through two lifetime extension efforts to raise its in-space life expectancy, upgraded its star trackers and installed a digital gyroscope to improve navigation in orbit. 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These pictures were taken from the press viewing site about four miles from the pad.Photo credit: Stephen Clark/Spaceflight NowPhoto credit: Stephen Clark/Spaceflight NowPhoto credit: Stephen Clark/Spaceflight NowPhoto credit: Ben Cooper/Spaceflight NowPhoto credit: Stephen Clark/Spaceflight NowPhoto credit: Stephen Clark/Spaceflight NowPhoto credit: Ben Cooper/Spaceflight NowPhoto credit: Ben Cooper/Spaceflight NowPhoto credit: Stephen Clark/Spaceflight NowPhoto credit: Ben Cooper/Spaceflight NowPhoto credit: Ben Cooper/Spaceflight NowPhoto credit: Ben Cooper/Spaceflight Now | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Stacking of Atlas 5 rocket begins for NASA launch SPACEFLIGHT NOWPosted: January 3, 2013 Cape Canaveral’s 2013 launch season began taking shape today as technicians started assembling the Atlas 5 rocket for the year’s first Space Coast mission — delivery of a NASA communications satellite into orbit on Jan. 29. File image of Atlas first stage hoisting operations. 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The capsule is one of the key elements of returning astronauts to the Moon.Fallen Heroes Patch CollectionThe official patches from Apollo 1, the shuttle Challenger and Columbia crews are available in the store. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.TDRS K launch windows SPACEFLIGHT NOWPosted: January 17, 2013 Editor’s Note: The daily launch window for the Atlas 5 rocket carrying NASA’s Tracking and Data Relay Satellite K (TDRS K) extends 40 minutes in duration for liftoff from Cape Canaveral’s Complex 41.All times are Eastern.DATE………WINDOW OPEN……WINDOW CLOSEJAN. 29……8:52 p.m………9:32 p.m. ESTJAN. 30……8:48 p.m………9:28 p.m. ESTJAN. 31……8:44 p.m………9:24 p.m. ESTFEB. 1…….8:40 p.m………9:20 p.m. ESTFEB. 2…….8:36 p.m………9:16 p.m. ESTFEB. 3…….8:32 p.m………9:12 p.m. ESTFEB. 4…….8:28 p.m………9:08 p.m. ESTFEB. 5…….8:24 p.m………9:04 p.m. ESTFEB. 6…….8:20 p.m………9:00 p.m. ESTFEB. 7…….8:16 p.m………8:56 p.m. ESTFEB. 8…….8:12 p.m………8:52 p.m. ESTFEB. 9…….8:09 p.m………8:49 p.m. ESTFEB. 10……8:05 p.m………8:45 p.m. ESTFEB. 11……8:01 p.m………8:41 p.m. ESTFEB. 12……7:57 p.m………8:37 p.m. ESTFEB. 13……7:53 p.m………8:33 p.m. ESTFEB. 14……7:49 p.m………8:29 p.m. ESTFEB. 15……7:45 p.m………8:25 p.m. ESTFEB. 16……7:41 p.m………8:21 p.m. ESTFEB. 17……7:37 p.m………8:17 p.m. ESTFEB. 18……7:33 p.m………8:13 p.m. ESTFEB. 19……7:29 p.m………8:09 p.m. ESTFEB. 20……7:25 p.m………8:05 p.m. ESTFEB. 21……7:21 p.m………8:01 p.m. ESTFEB. 22……7:17 p.m………7:57 p.m. ESTFEB. 23……7:13 p.m………7:53 p.m. ESTFEB. 24……7:10 p.m………7:50 p.m. ESTFEB. 25……7:06 p.m………7:46 p.m. ESTFEB. 26……7:02 p.m………7:42 p.m. ESTFEB. 27……6:58 p.m………7:38 p.m. ESTJohn Glenn Mission PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The historic first orbital flight by an American is marked by this commemorative patch for John Glenn and Friendship 7.Final Shuttle Mission PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The crew emblem for the final space shuttle mission is available in our store. Get this piece of history!Celebrate the shuttle programFree shipping to U.S. addresses!This special commemorative patch marks the retirement of NASA’s Space Shuttle Program. Available in our store!Anniversary Shuttle PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!This embroidered patch commemorates the 30th anniversary of the Space Shuttle Program. The design features the space shuttle Columbia’s historic maiden flight of April 12, 1981.Mercury anniversaryFree shipping to U.S. addresses!Celebrate the 50th anniversary of Alan Shephard’s historic Mercury mission with this collectors’ item, the official commemorative embroidered patch.Fallen Heroes Patch CollectionThe official patches from Apollo 1, the shuttle Challenger and Columbia crews are available in the store. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.TDRS K spacecraft encapsulated in nose coneNASA’s Tracking and Data Relay Satellite K (TDRS K) is encapsulated in the two-piece nose cone of the Atlas 5 rocket. The halves of the aluminum fairing were pushed together to shroud the satellite at the Astrotech processing facility in Titusville.The fairing protects the delicate communications spacecraft during ascent through the atmosphere, then gets jettisoned four-and-a-half minutes into flight after the first stage drops away and the Centaur upper stage lights.Liftoff remains scheduled for Tuesday, Jan. 29 at 8:52 p.m. EST.See our for the latest news on the launch.Photo credit: NASA-KSCTDRS K spacecraft readied for launchThe first spacecraft in NASA’s third generation of Tracking and Data Relay Satellites has been tested and fueled in preparation for its trek to orbit Jan. 29. Reporters and photographers got to see the craft Friday in the cleanroom facilities at the Astrotech complex in Titusville, Florida.Technicians will mount the satellite atop the short pedestal-like adapter mechanism on Monday. The two halves of the rocket’s nose cone, emblazoned with the hand-painted TDRS K and NASA logos, will encapsulate the satellite on Wednesday and Thursday in a two-day operation.After being loaded aboard a transporter, the payload will be hauled across the river to Complex 41 next Saturday, Jan. 19 for hoisting into the Vertical Integration Facility and mating to the Atlas 5 rocket.A thorough test of the combined systems between the Atlas and TDRS will follow, then technicians will finish closing out compartments and buttoning up the vehicle for flight.The Launch Readiness Review is planned for 6:30 a.m. EST on Monday, Jan. 28 to give final approval for rollout of the rocket later in the morning, at 10 a.m., to Cape Canaveral’s Complex 41 pad.Liftoff remains scheduled for Tuesday, Jan. 29 at 8:52 p.m. EST.See our for the latest news on the launch.Photo credit: /Spaceflight NowTDRS L readied for mid-January launchSpaceflight NowThe next-generation NASA science-relay satellite is being prepped for shrouding in the bullet-shaped nose cone that will shield it during launch Jan. 23. At the commercial Astrotech processing campus in Titusville, the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite L, or TDRS L, is being readied to join NASA’s constellation of communications satellites 22,300 miles above Earth. The craft will be encapsulated next Wednesday, Jan. 8 and then moved across the river to Cape Canaveral on Monday, Jan. 13 for mating to its Atlas-Centaur rocket. The United Launch Alliance Atlas 5 will carry the spacecraft on a two-hour flight to geosynchronous transfer orbit, the normal dropoff point for communications satellites. From there, TDRS L will maneuver itself into a circular orbit and undergo months of testing before being declared operational.TDRS satellites date back to 1983 to establish communications with the space shuttle. The system has grown over the years to provide coverage to the Hubble Space Telescope, NASA’s low-Earth orbiting satellite fleet and International Space Station.Liftoff is planned for Jan. 23 at 9:05 p.m. EST. Photo credit: Walter Scriptunas II /Teams study solar array snag on Air Force weather satellite SPACEFLIGHT NOWPosted: April 6, 2014 Engineers are studying a problem that caused the power-generating solar array on a newly-launched U.S. military weather satellite to only partially deploy, but officials said Friday the anomaly has so far not affected operations of the polar-orbiting spacecraft. Artist’s concept of a DMSP satellite in orbit. Photo credit: Lockheed Martin Corp.The $518 million satellite was successfully boosted into orbit from California’s Vandenberg Air Force Base on Thursday on a United Launch Alliance Atlas 5 rocket.The Atlas 5 rocket’s Centaur upper stage released the 2,700-pound spacecraft into orbit 530 miles above Earth, beginning a two-month sequence of activations and tests for the satellite’s systems and weather sensors.The spacecraft is part of the U.S. Air Force’s Defense Meteorological Satellite Program, which collects weather data from polar orbit to help forecasters produce forecasts for military and civilian users.The satellite apparently hit a snag in one of its first post-launch tasks when it unfurled its solar array.Kathryn Sullivan, administrator of NOAA, said Friday that controllers were sorting out a problem with the solar array boom.”It’s about 30 degrees shy of full deploy on the solar array boom, but we’re not working that as a contingency, so we’ll see how that goes,” Sullivan told the National Research Council’s Space Studies Board on Friday.Sources familiar with the situation said spacecraft operations are currently not affected by the issue with the solar array boom. They said DMSP 19 is safe, stable and has sufficient power to proceed with early orbit testing, and a special team has been appointed to evaluate the problem.The satellite’s solar array includes ten flat structurally identical solar cell panels, according to a technical report issued in 2006 by the Aerospace Corp. on long-term storage of DMSP solar panels.The panels are assembled into two packages of five panels. When unfurled in orbit, the ten panels are arranged in a single plane around the solar array boom, allowing the panels to track the sun as the spacecraft flies around Earth, engineers wrote in the Aerospace Corp. report.Once operational, DMSP 19 will be controlled by a joint NOAA and Air Force team at NOAA’s satellite operations center in Suitland, Md.Built by Lockheed Martin Corp., the DMSP 19 spacecraft is the latest in a 52-year series of military weather satellites.It was finished in 1998 and put into long-term storage to be launched when the Air Force deemed it needed the satellite in orbit to replace aging platforms.Engineers put DMSP 19 through two lifetime extension efforts to raise its in-space life expectancy, upgraded its star trackers and installed a digital gyroscope to improve navigation in orbit. They also replaced materials and lubricants that degraded during storage.The satellite is fitted with sensors to collect visible and infrared imagery of clouds, measure precipitation, surface temperatures and soil moisture, identify and locate severe weather, form three-dimensional cloud analyses, and monitor space weather, according to a Lockheed Martin fact sheet.Along with NOAA’s own civil weather satellites and European polar-orbiting meteorological observatories, the Air Force’s DMSP constellation feeds data to international forecasters to track global storm systems.DMSP 19 is the penultimate spacecraft in the DMSP series. The remaining satellite on the ground is in storage while Air Force officials decide whether to launch it in a few years or mothball it and move ahead with a newer, smaller and less costly weather satellite system.With DMSP 19′s launch, the military’s polar-orbiting weather satellite system includes seven operating spacecraft. The satellite is designed for a five-year lifetime in orbit.STS-134 PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The final planned flight of space shuttle Endeavour is symbolized in the official embroidered crew patch for STS-134. Available in our store!Final Shuttle Mission PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The crew emblem for the final space shuttle mission is now available in our store. Get this piece of history!Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.STS-133 PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The final planned flight of space shuttle Discovery is symbolized in the official embroidered crew patch for STS-133. Available in our store!Anniversary Shuttle PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!This embroidered patch commemorates the 30th anniversary of the Space Shuttle Program. The design features the space shuttle Columbia’s historic maiden flight of April 12, 1981.Mercury anniversaryFree shipping to U.S. addresses!Celebrate the 50th anniversary of Alan Shephard’s historic Mercury mission with this collectors’ item, the official commemorative embroidered patch. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Technology objectivesFROM NASA PRESS KIT

    September 20th, 2014 at 7:03 pm (#)

  46. Parajumpers Mujer Alisee says:

    Zarate added that, while the president’s “promise of eventual repeal is quite significant,” it “will never be done in this term.”

    September 20th, 2014 at 7:41 pm (#)

  47. UGG Bailey Button Metallic 1873 says:

    4. Ride a Red Jammer on Glacier National Park’s Going-to-the-Sun Road, Montana.

    September 20th, 2014 at 7:42 pm (#)

  48. hombress Chukka Timberland says:

    (New show!)

    September 20th, 2014 at 7:42 pm (#)

  49. Parajumpers Mujer Simona says:

    ? Doctoral degree holders: $84,396

    September 20th, 2014 at 7:43 pm (#)

  50. Hombres Timberland Online Chukka says:

    Bulger’s defense attorney, J.W. Carney, acknowledged his client did commit some crimes, including bookmaking, drug-trafficking and loan-sharking. But he insisted Bulger was not a murderer – or worse – a government snitch.

    September 20th, 2014 at 7:43 pm (#)

  51. UGG Adirondack Botas 5469 says:

    While the region’s famed bluegrass isn’t exactly blue, it still makes for unforgettable scenery, Harrington says. “In spring it’s very green and you contrast that with the horses in the fields, and the fence lines going hill and dale. It’s beautiful country and (has) such a deep heritage.” The limestone-rich soil is said to be responsible for the distinctive taste of Kentucky bourbon and for the speed and strength of its thoroughbred racehorses. You can see farms by driving country roads outside the city. Guided tours are also available.

    September 20th, 2014 at 7:43 pm (#)

  52. Anonymous says:

    Belaid’s funeral procession passed into the cemetery amid a scene of chaos caught live on television.

    September 20th, 2014 at 7:44 pm (#)

  53. Fred Perry Hombre says:

    Universities generally see more people apply than end up attending for a variety of reasons. Sometimes people change their minds about going to college. Others may fall short of the admission requirements.

    September 20th, 2014 at 7:44 pm (#)

  54. Botas Timberland Hombres Roll-To says:

    “I think his basic credo was to live your life in a Machiavellian way. As a result of that, he put a great emphasis on intimidation and deception. He was a master at deception,” Duffy said.

    September 20th, 2014 at 7:44 pm (#)

  55. Anonymous says:

    Road trip tip: Make an easy detour on the Mount Hood Scenic Loop to Timberline Lodge, a classic mountain park hotel. “It’s one of those see-it-before-you-die destinations,” he says.

    September 20th, 2014 at 7:44 pm (#)

  56. Anonymous says:

    And when it comes to tightening sanctions, look, as I said before, we’ve put in the toughest, most crippling sanctions ever. And the fact is, while we were coordinating an international coalition to make sure these sanctions were effective, you were still invested in a Chinese state oil company that was doing business with the Iranian oil sector.

    September 20th, 2014 at 7:45 pm (#)

  57. 2013 New Timberland botas says:

    Not every New York cultural experience has to be expensive. This free annual outdoor production in the park’s Delacorte Theater offers a chance to see top-flight actors

    September 20th, 2014 at 7:45 pm (#)

  58. Botas Ugg Badana Manguito says:

    Creole Creamery

    September 20th, 2014 at 7:45 pm (#)

  59. UGG Annabelle Botas says:

    “When you have a year where Smith & Wesson ran out of guns and they said, ‘We’ve made all the guns our machines can make and we’re sold out,’ where Americans – the FBI background checks shows – bought more guns than ever before, this is people who had one gun or two guns who are now keeping track of five or six and forget where they put them. ‘I took that bag to the gun range last week or my hunting trip, and now I’m going to use it on my trip to Florida.’ And they just don’t remember.”

    September 20th, 2014 at 7:46 pm (#)

  60. Anonymous says:

    Auto engineer Dr. Zhicheng Hu is a naturalized American citizen living in Los Angeles. In 2009, on business in China to sell his patented car emissions technology, Hu was accused by his former Chinese business partner of stealing commercial secrets. Authorities ordered Hu straight to prison in Tianjin, eastern China.

    September 20th, 2014 at 7:46 pm (#)

  61. Hombres says:

    Si bien las terapias actuales que han sido aprobadas para la enfermedad de Alzheimer se enfocan en la mejora de los s

    September 20th, 2014 at 7:46 pm (#)

  62. Parajumpers Mujer Chaleco says:

    Crowds angry over an anti-Muslim film ridiculing the Prophet Muhammad have assaulted U.S. embassies across the Middle East.ANKARA, Turkey Turkey’s President Abdullah Gul on Monday appealed for calm from all sides on the fourth day of anti-government protests but defended citizens’ rights to hold demonstrations to air grievances, in contrast to the belligerent stance of the prime minister.

    September 20th, 2014 at 7:47 pm (#)

  63. UGG Botas Maduros says:

    Every little tiny bit of news about an upcoming Apple smartphone that

    September 20th, 2014 at 7:47 pm (#)

  64. Volver & de cambio says:

    Tunisia’s leaders have promised that the interior will no longer be neglected and say they have drawn up plans to rebalance investment away from the coast.

    September 20th, 2014 at 7:47 pm (#)

  65. The North Face says:

    The combination approach found 41% more invasive breast cancers, or ones that have grown beyond the milk ducts. While standard mammograms detected 2.9 tumors per 1,000 women, the combination found 4.1 cancers per 1,000 women, according to the study, in the Journal of the American Medical Association.

    September 20th, 2014 at 7:48 pm (#)

  66. Anonymous says:

    Nancy Cordes: So are those the issues that you’re going to be focusing on in your ad campaign?

    September 20th, 2014 at 7:48 pm (#)

  67. UGG Chrystie Botas 5512 says:

    Shanghai Tower

    September 20th, 2014 at 7:49 pm (#)

  68. Ugg Knit says:

    Doctors get better pictures of the breast, because the machine cuts the images into digital slices, so that doctors can look at the breast as if turning pages in a book, says Emily Conant, chief of breast imaging at the University of Pennsylvania’s Perelman School of Medicine.

    September 20th, 2014 at 7:49 pm (#)

  69. UGG Weather/Performance says:

    There were demonstrations and symbolic funerals held for Belaid in several cities around the country.

    September 20th, 2014 at 7:49 pm (#)

  70. Botas Ugg Material Ligero says:

    Bucket list tip: Several outfitters run trips April through early October, but the best time to visit is in August, when the waters generally are calmest.

    September 20th, 2014 at 7:50 pm (#)

  71. Bermudas says:

    They discovered that most teen sibling fights were about why things aren’t fair/how they aren’t being treated the same or the need for personal space.

    September 20th, 2014 at 7:50 pm (#)

  72. 2013 Winter New Arrival says:

    Pinterest:?

    September 20th, 2014 at 7:50 pm (#)

  73. Ugg Bailey Button Trillizo 1873 says:

    Miller added, “It can happen to the best of us.”

    September 20th, 2014 at 7:51 pm (#)

  74. Timberland Hombre Chukka Botas says:

    So how can you spot a bad app?

    September 20th, 2014 at 7:51 pm (#)

  75. MBT MWalk Zapatos says:

    in India

    September 20th, 2014 at 7:52 pm (#)

  76. Armor-Lux says:

    5. Context doesn

    September 20th, 2014 at 7:52 pm (#)

  77. Parajumpers Hombre Gobi says:

    The ball was snapped and Hoffman went left, then right, then streaked 69 yards downfield for a touchdown. As he reached the end zone, he was mobbed by Nebraska players. Fullback C.J. Zimmerer hoisted put him on his shoulders. The 60,000-plus fans at Memorial Stadium Saturday went crazy.

    September 20th, 2014 at 7:52 pm (#)

  78. Timberland 3-Eye Lug Botas says:

    By the emotional tone of some of the comments I received on , you’d think that I’m casting judgment on people who start benefits early. This simply isn’t the case — it’s your life, and I respect your decisions. I’m simply showing that delaying the start of Social Security income might be in a person’s best financial interest, even though there could be legitimate reasons to start benefits early.

    September 20th, 2014 at 7:53 pm (#)

  79. Botas Ugg Sunburst Alto says:

    Liriano, the reigning AL comeback player of the year, was backed by Jason Kubel’s fourth-inning homer. He threw just 66 pitches for strikes but kept Chicago off-balance in a game that took just 2 hours, 9 minutes.

    September 20th, 2014 at 7:53 pm (#)

  80. UGG Libertad Botas says:

    This Eagle stole a beautiful Dolly Varden Char right off of my hook, then took all my backing and stole my fly too!

    September 20th, 2014 at 7:53 pm (#)

  81. UGG de piel de oveja Cuff 1875 says:

    7. Finally, just to keep things fresh I will show you a new method that while not the easiest. Has some fun results. Grab a bike pump and shove the tube down a hole you bore in the cork. Give it some pressure and watch the cork rise. Once it is about halfway pull it with your hand and set it free.

    September 20th, 2014 at 7:54 pm (#)

  82. UGG Sundance Boots says:

    Bucket list tip: While on the Florida side, take a detour and visit nearby Seaside, the planned New Urbanism beach community featured in the film, The Truman Show.

    September 20th, 2014 at 7:54 pm (#)

  83. Hombres UGGs says:

    Researchers from the University of Missouri discovered that teens that fought with their brothers and sisters showed more anxiety, depression and/or self-esteem issues a year later.

    September 20th, 2014 at 7:54 pm (#)

  84. UGG Bailey Bow says:

    Tom Price: Oh thanks Nancy, wonderful to be with you. I appreciate it.

    September 20th, 2014 at 7:55 pm (#)

  85. UGG Botas Altas says:

    Bucket list tip: Take a boat tour to see Columbia Glacier, which covers 400 square miles, and is the state’s largest tidewater ice field.

    September 20th, 2014 at 7:55 pm (#)

  86. UGG Guantes says:

    What will the spouse’s benefit be?

    September 20th, 2014 at 7:56 pm (#)

  87. Woolrich Chaquetas says:

    These excuses work, except for scholarships that don

    September 20th, 2014 at 7:56 pm (#)

  88. UGG Sneakers Sale says:

    Shaniya’s body was found on Nov. 16, 2009, in a kudzu patch off N.C. Highway 87 on the Lee-Harnett county line, six days after her mother reported her missing from their Fayetteville mobile home.

    September 20th, 2014 at 7:57 pm (#)

  89. Lacoste L!VE Hombre says:

    But this year, McDonald

    September 20th, 2014 at 7:57 pm (#)

  90. Swiss franc says:

    It takes hardly any time at all, and consider this: If it takes you an hour to fill out the application and you win, you

    September 20th, 2014 at 7:58 pm (#)

  91. Canada Goose Hombre says:

    , Florida and Mississippi

    September 20th, 2014 at 7:58 pm (#)

  92. UGG Classic Stripe Cable Knit Botas says:

    She also tried to establish a relationship between South Korea and the University of South Florida’s medical school.

    September 20th, 2014 at 7:58 pm (#)

  93. Ni?os Erin UGG Botas says:

    Contemporary meets Caribbean chic at this stylish set along Anguilla’s Barnes and Meads Bay. Expansive villas and residences are luxuriantly decorated by celebrated interior designer Kelly Wearstler, complete with gourmet kitchens, spa pools, and outdoor showers. With such lavishness, you’ll want to bring your entire entourage ?? including your nanny and pilot. At the Sunset Lounge, the chic set dip into sushi and creative cocktails while taking in the jaw-dropping sunsets. Hide away in the two-story 8,000-square-foot oceanfront spa for a Blue Tranquility massage that will leave you in an altered state.

    September 20th, 2014 at 7:59 pm (#)

  94. UGG Peony Botas says:

    Steven Law: Well voters you know, looking at voter behavior over the years I’m always interested to see and impressed to see how voters eventually find the key issues that matter to them to cast their vote. And it makes the issues that we’re supporting or the issues the other side is supporting, but they’re able to finally grab those bits and pieces of information that really matter to them. We provide as much information as we can. We try to make it accurate, we try to make it interesting but in the end the voters really do have the choice to make and I think they will.

    September 20th, 2014 at 7:59 pm (#)

  95. ni?os Timberland says:

    American League MVP

    September 20th, 2014 at 7:59 pm (#)

  96. Anonymous says:

    To help you in this endeavor, I checked with two of the nation’s foremost experts on Social Security: Andy Landis, author of “,” and Jon Peterson, who wrote “.” Between Andy, Jon and I, we came up with four common errors that you should avoid and that will help you optimize your Social Security benefits.

    September 20th, 2014 at 8:00 pm (#)

  97. Chaquetas & Abrigos says:

    Bayreuth Festspielhaus

    September 20th, 2014 at 8:00 pm (#)

  98. Mujeres Timberland Rollo Top Botas says:

    9. Take multiple pictures at once

    September 20th, 2014 at 8:01 pm (#)

  99. Hombres Timberland Rollo Top Botas says:

    5.?WR , Pittsburgh Steelers ($3,700) vs. Cleveland Browns

    September 20th, 2014 at 8:01 pm (#)

  100. UGG Botas Cardy says:

    Bucket list tip: For a splurge, book a stay at the luxury Caneel Bay Resort, which is surrounded by the park. It was developed by Laurance Rockefeller, who donated land for the park in the 1950s.For many travelers, experiencing new tastes is one of the top reasons for leaving home. “It’s a great way to connect to a place,” says Christine Muhlke, executive editor of magazine. “Unless you actually taste that food and see it and smell it and push it around the plate with a fork, you’re not going to understand it.” She shares her favorite cities for eating and exploring with Larry Bleiberg for USA TODAY.

    September 20th, 2014 at 8:02 pm (#)

  101. UGG Knit Botas says:

    What’s healthier, an orange or a banana? Type “compare” into Google’s search bar, along with the foods you want to look at, such as “compare broccoli and asparagus.” Google will do the rest.

    September 20th, 2014 at 8:02 pm (#)

  102. Hombres Chukka Timberland says:

    “There’s no outside parameter input into the water mass that we are measuring.”

    September 20th, 2014 at 8:02 pm (#)

  103. Volver & de cambio says:

    In addition to paying Uncle Sam, you also encounter an opportunity cost from not being invested in the market. Even a short absence from the market can significantly impact your long-term returns and retirement plans.

    September 20th, 2014 at 8:03 pm (#)

  104. Timberland 6 Inch Boots says:

    The restaurant stock that is rocketing higher that some investors might have missed is Jack in the Box, which sells everything from burgers to fajita pitas. Shares are up 19% this year as analysts forecast earnings to grow 34% in 2014. That translates into a tasty average 18-month price target of $66.83, which is 12% higher than where the stock is now.

    September 20th, 2014 at 8:03 pm (#)

  105. Vans Accesorios says:

    National parks offer a number of impressive mountain roads, but none is better than Glacier’s Going-to-the-Sun Road that crosses the Rocky Mountains of northern Montana. Save wear and tear on your own vehicle and gain better views of the surrounding landscape by choosing one of the free shuttles or paying for a tour on one of the park’s famous “Reds,” buses used to transport visitors. The shuttle service is available to the Logan Pass Visitor Center from both the west and east sides of the park.

    September 20th, 2014 at 8:04 pm (#)

  106. UGG Botas De Mini says:

    , former government contractor Edward Snowden says he has left the country after, “It became clear that my freedom and safety were under threat for revealing the truth.”

    September 20th, 2014 at 8:04 pm (#)

  107. Cinturones says:

    There are nine restaurant stocks in the broad Standard & Poor

    September 20th, 2014 at 8:04 pm (#)

  108. UGG Roxy Corto Botas 5828 says:

    You’ll also get pronunciation, part of speech, and you can click the gray arrow for more information, including word origins.

    September 20th, 2014 at 8:05 pm (#)

  109. UGG Knightsbrige Botas says:

    If you don’t have direct deposit, then you have to do it the old fashioned way: Either make a trip to the bank yourself or deposit $250 into a “car jar” on the dresser every Thursday after you get paid.

    September 20th, 2014 at 8:05 pm (#)

  110. UGG Sahale Botas says:

    Chili

    September 20th, 2014 at 8:05 pm (#)

  111. Botas Ugg Palanqueta Choo says:

    With four out of every five possible combinations of Powerball numbers in play, lottery executives said Saturday that someone was almost certain to win the game’s highest jackpot, a windfall of hundreds of millions of dollars ? and that’s after taxes.

    September 20th, 2014 at 8:06 pm (#)

  112. Swedish Krona says:

    3. Forgetting why you are on campus

    September 20th, 2014 at 8:06 pm (#)

  113. Ugg Classic Short Sparkles says:

    The Giants

    September 20th, 2014 at 8:07 pm (#)

  114. Ugg Tassel Short Botas 5835 says:

    Yes,?after years of bickering there

    September 20th, 2014 at 8:07 pm (#)

  115. MBT Zapatos Shuguli GTX says:

    ? Master’s degree holders: $69,108

    September 20th, 2014 at 8:07 pm (#)

  116. Anonymous says:

    The fix: Check the mailing address and find the hotel’s exact location on Google Maps. Always enter the hotel’s address and see how far it is from popular attractions and restaurants by foot, by car or by public transport. Try entering the addresses of some attractions you’d like to see while in your destination and map the route. You may also want to explore the neighborhood with Google Maps Street View. And if there are multiple hotels by the same chain in that city, make sure you have booked yourself at the property in the correct neighborhood??the Hyatt Times Square and the Hyatt Flushing are very different indeed.

    September 20th, 2014 at 8:08 pm (#)

  117. Timberland 6 Inch Boots says:

    A triple-rainbow salute of “cheers” goes out to from us at for another excellent “life hack” video to keep the wine flowing. And if you’d like or(CBS/AP) LONDON – The royal honeymoon is under way and official details are slim, making British media guess at where Prince William and Kate have gone.

    September 20th, 2014 at 8:08 pm (#)

  118. Ugg Bailey Button Fancy says:

    Guangzhou Opera House

    September 20th, 2014 at 8:09 pm (#)

  119. Ugg Botas Ni?os says:

    Democratic Sen. Joe Manchin of West Virginia, and Republican Sen. Patrick Toomey of Pennsylvania struck a deal that would expand background checks to all commercial gun sales, including gun shows and internet sales, but not private sales among family and friends.

    September 20th, 2014 at 8:09 pm (#)

  120. Ugg Sheepskin Cuff says:

    The Dodgers

    September 20th, 2014 at 8:09 pm (#)

  121. New Zealand Dollar says:

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  239. Timberland Hombre Hiking Botas says:

    Nancy Cordes: But what about the specific elements of the law, like the 26-year old provision, like pre-existing conditions?

    September 20th, 2014 at 8:57 pm (#)

  240. UGG Nightfall says:

    Sara Jeltis said her parents in Michigan texted her with the news Sunday morning.

    September 20th, 2014 at 8:57 pm (#)

  241. UGG Kensington Short says:

    Thirty-two percent of the children reported being bullied by a sibling. Steven Pastyrnak, a child psychologist at Helen DeVos Children’s Hospital in Grand Rapids, Mich., said to he was surprised at how high the number of bullied kids was.

    September 20th, 2014 at 8:58 pm (#)

  242. Timberland Mujer says:

    Other breast cancer advocates caution that doctors still don’t know whether finding these extra cancers will actually save lives, however, or simply lead more women to treatment.

    September 20th, 2014 at 8:58 pm (#)

  243. hombress Timberland Roll Top says:

    According to a recent study by TIAA-CREF, 29% of Americans who participate in retirement plans say they have taken out a loan from their savings in the plans. Yet 44% regret the decision. Among those who took out a loan in the study, 43% have taken out two or more loans. Since these loans usually provide easy access to money, 401(k) borrowers run the risk of becoming dependent on them; 401(k) loans should not be used to supplement your overspending habits.

    September 20th, 2014 at 8:59 pm (#)

  244. Anonymous says:

    The extremely useful list of alternative options to a corkscrew comes to us courtesy of , , , and who writes about this latest work:

    September 20th, 2014 at 9:00 pm (#)

  245. MBT Casual Zapatos says:

    Without following women for many years, doctors also can’t tell whether tomosynthesis missed a lot of cancers, according to an accompanying editorial by Etta Pisano of the Medical University of South Carolina and Martin Yaffe of the University of Toronto. In their editorial, they urge the National Cancer Institute to fund a trial to answer these questions.

    September 20th, 2014 at 9:01 pm (#)

  246. UGG Hannen says:

    Other experts agree.

    September 20th, 2014 at 9:01 pm (#)

  247. Camisetas says:

    BOULUD’S LAST PREDICTION:

    September 20th, 2014 at 9:01 pm (#)

  248. UGG Maylin says:

    5. Noah Syndergaard, New York Mets

    September 20th, 2014 at 9:01 pm (#)

  249. UGG Mini Bailey says:

    The City of Prescott identified the 19 men Monday. The majority of the firefighters were in their early-to-mid 20s:

    September 20th, 2014 at 9:02 pm (#)

  250. UGG Botas Negras says:

    This isolated park along the Rio Grande is an off-roader’s paradise, with dozens of miles of both improved and primitive dirt roads through one of the most stark but beautiful landscapes anywhere. Rugged cliffs surround the park’s Chisos Basin area, where you’ll find a lodge and nearby campground. Camping also is available at a developed campground on the Rio Grande. Enjoy a dip in the thermal waters of Langford Hot Springs.

    September 20th, 2014 at 9:02 pm (#)

  251. Canada Goose Mujer says:

    The presidential aide ? who spoke to The Associated Press on condition of anonymity ? said that the former Libyan leader left Tunisia by plane on Sunday morning from the Al Aouina military airport near Tunis, the capital.

    September 20th, 2014 at 9:02 pm (#)

  252. UGG Classic Paisley says:

    But both sides remain far apart. Republicans insist any budget agreement must include deep spending cuts, while Obama is seeking what he calls a balanced deal that would include not only cuts in government spending including reductions in entitlement programs but also higher taxes.

    September 20th, 2014 at 9:03 pm (#)

  253. UGG Botas De Mini says:

    Trout finished second to Tigers slugger Miguel Cabrera in hotly contested AL MVP voting in both 2012 and 2013, but he

    September 20th, 2014 at 9:03 pm (#)

  254. mujeres 14 Inch Timberland says:

    1. Uncle Sam

    September 20th, 2014 at 9:03 pm (#)

  255. UGG Kenly Botas says:

    Below are the 11 companies that traded on a major U.S. exchange with market values of $300 million or more at the end of their most recent fiscal years when the auditors issued a

    September 20th, 2014 at 9:04 pm (#)

  256. Moncler Rosean Mujer says:

    They needed the help in 2010, when Timber suffered a serious fall. A home health aide helps him with dressing, meals and medicine.

    September 20th, 2014 at 9:04 pm (#)

  257. Carteras says:

    The largest island on the Georgia coast preserves marshes, forests, herds of wild horses ?? and wild beaches. The island is only accessible by a 45-minute pedestrian ferry from the town of St. Marys. Once on shore, visitors can rent bicycles, hike and camp in developed and wilderness sites. There aren’t even trash cans on the island ?C travelers are required to carry out everything they bring in.

    September 20th, 2014 at 9:05 pm (#)

  258. Botas Ugg Bailey Arco says:

    After standing down a year to make more changes to the tank’s insulation, Discovery flew again last July and its tank performed well. No major pieces of foam came off during passage through the dense lower atmosphere when the most critical damage can occur.

    September 20th, 2014 at 9:05 pm (#)

  259. Anonymous says:

    Crowley knocked Republicans for pushing a strategically and legally “unsustainable” policy, explaining, “We have invested significant powers in the president in a time of war, but to suggest that we will be engaged in war indefinitely fundamentally changes the Constitution, and I don’t know that the American people want that and I’m not sure that the congress wants that either.”

    September 20th, 2014 at 9:05 pm (#)

  260. Christian Louboutin Botas Mujer Christian Louboutin Botas says:

    STORY WRITTEN FOR & USED WITH PERMISSIONPosted: February 27, 2007A sudden, explosive thunderstorm Monday battered the shuttle Atlantis’ external fuel tank with wind-driven, golf ball-sized hail, causing extensive damage to the tank’s protective foam insulation. NASA managers said today engineers will have to move the shuttle back to the Vehicle Assembly Building for repairs, delaying launch on a space station assembly mission from March 15 to late April. Credit: NASA-KSCMore images are available With wind gusts as high as 62 mph at launch complex 39A Monday, early estimates indicated some 7,000 visible hail dings or blemishes in the orange insulation, mostly around the top of the external tank. John Chapman, external tank program manager at the Marshall Space Flight Center, said today not all of those dings will require repairs. But initial estimates have identified “hundreds” of sites that will require sanding to smooth over or foam “pours” to fill in deeper pits.In addition, at least three so-called ice-frost ramps on the upper part of the tank were damaged and two dozen or so shuttle tiles showed signs of minor surface damage.”This constitutes, in our evaluation, the worst damage that we have ever seen from hail on the external tank foam,” shuttle Program Manager Wayne Hale told reporters today. “We have had hail a number of times in the past, hail is not unusual in Florida. … But usually the hail is quite small and rarely causes damage.”This was large, wind-driven, damaging hail. It is very clear a number of these areas need to be repaired. There is not access on the launch pad so we will be required to move the space shuttle back from the launch pad to the Vehicle Assembly Building.”Launch director Mike Leinbach said today the 3.2-mile trip from pad 39A to the VAB likely will get underway Sunday morning. Once the shuttle is back in the cavernous VAB, where engineers can position access platforms around the tank, Hale said a more accurate assessment of the damage will be made.In the meantime, “we do not believe we can make the launch window for the March launch of Atlantis,” Hale said. “We have a fairly high degree of confidence we can repair this at the Kennedy Space Center. Most likely that would lead us to a launch of Atlantis and her crew … after the Russian Soyuz changeout.”Video coverage for subscribers only:VIDEO:NASA BRIEFING ON LAUNCH DELAY AND ROLLBACK PLANS MORE: March 25 marked the end of the March launch window to give Atlantis’ crew time to carry out a space station assembly mission and to undock in time for the planned April 7 launch of a Russian Soyuz spacecraft carrying the station’s next full-time crew and American space tourist Charles Simonyi.Outgoing station commander Mike Lopez-Alegria, Mikhail Tyurin and Simonyi are scheduled to return to Earth on April 19 or 20, depending on how much daylight the Russians want for landing. Current agreements between NASA and the Russian space agency require a few days of separation between shuttle and Soyuz missions because of crew rest and other issues.Assuming a Soyuz landing on April 19 or 20, the next shuttle launch window would open around April 21 or 22 and extend a full month. The next shuttle launch window after that opens June 9.If a detailed assessment of Atlantis’ tank shows the hail damage can, in fact, be repaired inside the Vehicle Assembly Building, Hale said he was optimistic about a late April launch attempt.”The bottom line here is we will have to roll back to the VAB for repairs,” Hale said. “We believe … it will probably be about a month before we can talk about being back in a launch posture, sometime in late April.”But Chapman said that assumes the damage can be fixed by “sand-and-blend” techniques or by pouring foam into damaged areas and then sanding and smoothing it over. If foam has to be sprayed across wider areas, engineers likely would have to carry out tests to verify the technique can be accomplished with the tank in a vertical orientation in the VAB. And that could take additional time.But based on the preliminary assessment, “we don’t see anything that looks irreparable,” he said.If it turns out the tank cannot be safely repaired in Florida, NASA has the option of switching Atlantis to a tank slated for use in June by the shuttle Endeavour. But that tank is not scheduled to arrive at the Kennedy Space Center until April 10 and it typically takes two months to complete preparations and checkout. In that case, the flight likely would slip into the June launch window.But Hale said he was optimistic it won’t come to that. He also believes the long-term effects of the slip from March 15 to late April will be minimal when all is said and done. While the next few flights would face delays of up to several weeks, “I still believe we have a very strong probability of flying five flights this calendar year.”Additional coverage for subscribers:VIDEO:ATLANTIS DEPARTS VEHICLE ASSEMBLY BUILDING VIDEO:SHUTTLE ARRIVES AT LAUNCH PAD 39A VIDEO:ATLANTIS LEAVES HANGAR AT DAWN VIDEO:SHUTTLE ROLLS TO VEHICLE ASSEMBLY BUILDING VIDEO:TIME-LAPSE OF VAB ARRIVAL VIDEO:TIME-LAPSE OF LIFTING SLING VIDEO:ORBITER GOES VERTICAL IN VAB VIDEO:ATLANTIS JOINS TANK AND BOOSTERS STS-134 PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The final planned flight of space shuttle Endeavour is symbolized in the official embroidered crew patch for STS-134. Available in our store!Final Shuttle Mission PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The crew emblem for the final space shuttle mission is now available in our store. Get this piece of history!Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.STS-133 PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The final planned flight of space shuttle Discovery is symbolized in the official embroidered crew patch for STS-133. Available in our store!Anniversary Shuttle PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!This embroidered patch commemorates the 30th anniversary of the Space Shuttle Program. The design features the space shuttle Columbia’s historic maiden flight of April 12, 1981.Mercury anniversaryFree shipping to U.S. addresses!Celebrate the 50th anniversary of Alan Shephard’s historic Mercury mission with this collectors’ item, the official commemorative embroidered patch. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Hail-damaged shuttle fuel tank assessment continues BY WILLIAM HARWOOD

    September 20th, 2014 at 9:06 pm (#)

  261. UGG Bailey Button 5809 says:

    ???????????????A Form 51-102F1 Management’s????????????????Discussion and Analysis for the period????????????????ended???13/03/31?????????????????

    September 20th, 2014 at 9:06 pm (#)

  262. Canada Goose Youth&Baby says:

    STORY WRITTEN FOR & USED WITH PERMISSIONPosted: August 15, 2006 NASA Administrator Mike Griffin watches the launch of shuttle Discovery from Firing Room 4 on Independence Day. Credit: NASA/Bill IngallsNASA Administrator Mike Griffin is known for being a straight shooter willing to make tough decisions. Brought on board by the Bush administration to implement a new initiative to return to the moon by the end of the next decade, Griffin is overseeing a difficult transition as NASA works to complete the international space station by 2010, phase out the space shuttle and develop a new manned spacecraft that will be safer and cheaper to operate.Griffin discussed that transition with CBS News space writer William Harwood last month, a few hours before Discovery took off on the second post-Columbia shuttle mission. With NASA managers assessing their readiness to restart space station assembly with launch of the shuttle Atlantis later this month, here is a lightly edited transcript of the conversation:Q: How important is it for NASA to restart space station assembly after such a long hiatus?A: We’re doing this so we can build a toehold for humanity off the Earth, our first, a permanent facility, a long-term facility to learn how to live and work in space. We’re half done. We’re the leader of a project that’s got (many) nations involved in it and we need to get on with it. That’s why we’re flying shuttles and yeah, I want to get started back on that job and I want to get it done and I want to move on with going back to the moon.Q: What’s the primary value of the space station in your view?A: From my perspective as an engineer, which I admit is biased, the main purpose of the station is to learn how to live and work in space. Whenever humans are ready to go to Mars, we’re going to need an amount of hardware in space about the size of the space station when it’s done. That’s how much we need to go to Mars. And hopefully we will have learned so much from how we’ve assembled station that we’ll do a great job on it. It won’t take us 20 years to put together the hardware to go to Mars because we’ll have learned.Q: There is a widespread perception, among reporters at least, that the only reason NASA is pressing ahead with the space station is because of the agency’s earlier commitment to launch research modules for Japan and the European Space Agency. There is a perception that if Mike Griffin had his way, this would all stop today. Why does that perception exist?A: People misunderstand and given a few moments, I can actually explain what I think as opposed to having people make it up. People should understand, from where we are at this point in time, the right thing to do is to fly out the shuttle to retirement and use it to assemble the station. OK? Because otherwise, we’re not taking advantage of the investment we’ve made. Now, what is true is that I think we did things in the wrong order. The right approach to running the nation’s space program would, in my mind, never have been to abandon going to the moon as we did in the early 70s. I’ve characterized that over and over again as one of the many unfortunate decisions to come out of the Nixon administration. In my opinion that was a poor decision and I think I’m entitled to say that.That said, that decision was made and other consequences followed from it, one of which is we built the shuttle and declared the space station to be the major project we would use it for. And we’ve been working on the station now for 22 years.Now if you ask me, when people say i would never do this, they’ve got it wrong. If you want to go to Mars, the building of a space station is an important step along that way. It’s possible to go to Mars without having built a space station, but I think in preparing for a voyage to Mars, a space station is a step along the way and I would have done that. I would not have done it in this way, I would not have done it in 25,000- or 30,000-pound chunks at a time over dozens of shuttle flights. i would have done it more like we did Skylab, where we put up 200,000 pounds at a time. As an engineer, the way we went about it, because of the order in which we made our decisions, offends me. I’m offended as a technical person, because I don’t like the way in which we did it. But no one will ever get me to say that a space station is not a valuable step along the road to Mars. If I’ve not been clear with these comments, ask me again and I’ll clarify. Because what Mike thinks is often misreported by those who don’t even bother to ask me the question.Q: As long as you don’t have to understand it for me! (laughter) How do you view station in the context of returning to the moon?A: Station is not relevant to the moon. That’s why I said the order of the things we’ve done is not what I would have had it be as a technical person. That said, we’ll use the station, maybe to check out hardware that will be used on a lunar base in the future. i think we can make some use of the station for our development of a lunar base in the longer run. But really, in my mind the station is far more useful in terms of thinking about Mars. Which gets back to my issue, we didn’t get things in the right chronological order to get the maximum utility out of it.Q: How do you envision the end game for the space station? When the CEV comes on line, will you be able to deliver spares? Can station survive without the shuttle?A: They will have a way to get up there. I think that’s not perceived correctly. With the Ares 1 launch vehicle and the CEV, we’re deliberately building in a substantial amount of flexibility. The Ares 1 can be launched in an unmanned mode, it can be launched with the service module and not with the command module and can be used to take up unpressurized cargo in that fashion to the station, including (gyroscopes) and other (large) things. The CEV command module will have a fair-size door in it on purpose to allow us to fly, if we choose, with a minimum number of crew and take up a large amount of pressurized cargo. We’ve got a good deal of volume inside that thing. The service module on the CEV will have a trunk, if you will, (and) we can take up unpressurized cargo in the trunk. So we’re designing the system to be modular and adaptable and flexible so it can do much, not all, but much of what the shuttle does today. The shuttle has enormous capabilities, not all of which we will be able to replicate in the CEV system. But we’re going to capture a good deal of it and we can, we absolutely can use the CEV and the Ares 1 launch vehicle to sustain the space station.Q: How long will NASA continue to fund the space station as the agency ramps up for flights to the moon?A: You’re talking about 10 years in the future. Let’s put it this way. I am not making or allowing any decisions to be made which would cause the space station to be terminated on some particular date. I’m sure there will come a day when we decide that we’ve gotten out of it what we can and that it’s more expensive to keep the replacement hardware flying than the utility we’re getting from it and we’ll make a technical and fiscal decision to say OK, we’re done, let’s put it in the Pacific. I would not care to speculate about what date that might be.”Q: Can I assume funding at least 10 years past 2010? Can you bound it for me?A: I would not want to attach a date to it. Once we get hardware in space, it tends to live longer than we think because we design it pretty robustly. The hard job is always getting it into space. It’s still a hard job today, 50 years into the era of space flight, getting stuff up there is hard, harder than it ought to be. We’re working to fix that. But once we get it there, it lives for a long time.Q: Why should America send astronauts to Mars?A: I can give you a bunch of different answers that matter to me. But why did Spain bankroll Magellan to leave port with five ships and head out around the world, two of which never made it past the Canary Islands and two more of which were lost on the way? They got one ship back three years later with something like 20 or so people out of an initial crew of 122 across all the ships. Why’d they do that? It is in the nature of humans to find, to define, to explore and to push back the frontier. And in our time, the frontier is space and will be for a very long time.Give me a counter example to the statement I’m about to make. When the history books are written, the nations that are preeminent in their time are those nations that dominate the frontiers of their time. The failed societies are the ones that pull back from the frontier. I want our society, America, western society, to be preeminent in the world of the future and I want us not to be a failed society. And the way to do that, universally so, is to push the frontier.Now we don’t do that with every dollar we’ve got. Obviously, most of our money has to be spent on today’s concerns. But we’re talking about something here that uses six tenths of a percent of the federal budget. This is not exactly spending money like a drunken sailor. This is an investment for our grandchildren’s grandchildren.I could make a very good argument on the basis of economics, that the European investment in the New World didn’t pay off, really, for Europeans for 400 years. I could make an argument for you that the biggest payoff of European investment in the New World was the existence of America to bail them out of World War 2. Europe would have sunk into a dark age in the 20th century with the set of political activities and behaviors that led to World War 1 and then World War 2, which followed from that. Without the investment in the New World, there would not have been another society elsewhere on the planet to prevent Europe from falling back into a second dark age. And I could make an argument that European investment in the New World was a net loss for hundreds of years and finally was worth the effort.These kinds of activities, as I say, they’re not large in the grand scheme of things, although it looks large when you write down the budget numbers, and they don’t pay off today. They pay off for our grandchildren’s grandchildren. And I care about that and I think everyone else should, too.Q: Looking at it like that, NASA’s budget is not all that huge. So why do you have so much trouble getting adequate funding?A: That’s the budgeting process that we have in a representative democracy. It’s difficult for every discretionary program, all of whom have to earn their way. This nation spends this year $1.9 trillion on entitlement programs and interest on the public debt. This nation spends just under $900 billion on all domestic discretionary programs, including defense. When you extract defense, we spend just under $400 billion on all non-defense domestic discretionary programs. We basically finance our discretionary programs on the debt. That’s how we do our budgeting. It’s an outgrowth of political behavior in a representative democracy. I might wish it to be otherwise, but this is what it is.The space program actually has been treated well. The president gave us a 3.2 percent increase this year when the average domestic non-defense discretionary program got minus .5 percent. So we did 3.7 percent better than the average. So far, the Congress seems inclined to sustain that. I hope that they will. So I can’t claim that we’ve been treated badly at all.Q: The science community has voiced loud complaints about what many see as major cutbacks in funding.A: The science community argues with the apportionment of the funds. And that’s unfortunate, because all of our different portfolios – science, manned spaceflight, aeronautics – all of them have had to be trimmed, all of them have ‘given at the office,’ if you will. Science hasn’t been singled out. But the science community is not getting as much as some earlier promises would have led them to indicate.Q: Unmanned science missions generate the very sort of long-term dividends you say are so important.A: We do a lot of unmanned space exploration. I think we’ve got 56 or 58 currently operating robotic missions and we’re building more of them. Again, this is people of different communities arguing that their piece of the pie should be bigger. I have spent a good portion of my life putting together robotic payloads with space science. I worked on Hubble as a younger engineer, I worked on many others. I’m proud of that. But the fact is that there has not been much acknowledgement on the part of the science community that the manned spaceflight community had the number of shuttle and station flights whacked by a third. We’re doing only two thirds of the number of shuttle flights between now and shuttle retirement that the manned spaceflight comm wanted to do. We are delaying the development of follow-on systems for exploration that the exploration community, including me, wanted to have sooner. We’re doing less aeronautics than we would like to be doing. And yes, we’re doing less science than we would like to be doing. But when the science community cites that their budget has not grown as much as had been promised previously, they don’t mention that other portfolios within NASA are also not doing as well as had been promised.Q: The perception seems to be that development of a new spacecraft to replace the shuttle is eating up the budget.A: No. CEV and CLV gave at the office as well. The fact is that flying out the shuttle and finishing the station is utilizing money in order to meet that commitment. … That’s a fact. Some people believe, and certainly it’s their right to do so, that we should not finish the station, we should not fly out the shuttle. That’s a not unreasonable point of view. But that debate was held. In the year following the loss of Columbia, that debate was held. All sides were heard, multiple congressional hearings were held.I personally, as a private citizen before rejoining NASA, I gave testimony on three different occasions to some of these congressional hearings. Innumerable discussions were held in the executive office of the president about what should be the shape of America’s future in space. All of those view points – everything from stop flying the shuttle right now to continue it on indefinitely into the future – every point of view was heard. We have a space policy today that reflects a reasoned consensus among those viewpoints. I support it.It is a fact that not every participant in these debates got their way! There was no possibility that that could happen because some of the viewpoints were diametrically opposed. The losers in the arguments, of course, would like to refight the arguments because they can’t do worse than lose, right? You can refight any argument for as long as you can get people to listen to you. I would offer this. I think the damage done by refighting these arguments, which have been had and which I think have been settled and should be settled, the damage to the American space program by refighting these battles is greater than just going on and accepting the fact that you lost this argument. Let’s get the job done and move on to the next step. I think the arguments are valid. The point I’m making is they’ve been had.Q: Given the current environment where every little thing triggers enormous scrutiny, how optimistic are you about flying out the shuttle manifest to complete the station?A: We have to get back to a process which allows engineers, operators, technicians to look at these things, make a determination and move on. I think we’re justifiably and correctly concerned about the slightest thing these days. (But) we’ve got to get moving on and I think we will.Q: But this environment is difficult in the sense that if you look at something like the foam on the external tank hard enough, you’re bound to find something.A: That’s true. Speaking generically, we know foam comes off this ship. Our goal has been over the last three years to remove large pieces of foam so that they can’t come off and to contain and control the foam releases to some appropriate threshold. We think we’ve done that. This ship is going to shed foam until we stop flying it.Q: Are you surprised it’s been this difficult to resolve the foam shedding problem?A: No, I’m not surprised. To fix it, you’d have to go back to square one and start anew and that would take several years and that’s just not a reasonable alternative. We’d have to have a completely different design approach. As I’ve said on a number of occasions, prior to Columbia no one at NASA really appreciated the hazard of something as apparently insubstantial as foam. So shame on us. Now we appreciate it, we’re dealing with it, I think we’ve kind of got it where we want it. I hope I’m not going too far out on a limb here.Q: The ice-frost ramps are the latest source of concern on the external tank. You’ve tested the current design at wind levels far above what they’ll ever see in flight and they hold together.A: I know. They actually behave a lot better than the analytical models would tell you is the case. And that’s interesting.Q: Looking ahead, what do you need to see to approve a Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission? A certified ice-frost ramp redesign? Certified heat shield repair techniques?A: I’ve got a pretty good background in hypersonic aerodynamics and I do not hold tile repair out as something that I would want to use as an operational work around. That’s the last-ditch attempt. I do not want to mess around with the outer mold line of this vehicle if I can help it and I do not want to rely on tile repair as an operational asset. It’s a backup to a backup.Q: So that’s not a gate for you.A: A gate for me is to know that this tank will not shed harmfully large pieces of foam at an inappropriate time. A lot matters about what time it is. Frankly, if the whole damn tank shed every piece of foam on it at T-0, no one would care. It would all fall down and it wouldn’t be a problem because there’s no relative speed between the foam and the orbiter. Or if all the foam came off once we were out of the sensible atmosphere, again, we wouldn’t care. I’m going to extremes here to paint a picture for you.Q: I’m not sure I understand why the ice-frost ramps got classified as probable/catastrophic in the risk matrix. Do you agree with that classification?A: We labeled it as probable/catastrophic because subsidiary to that box is a statement everybody keeps missing, ‘with no mitigation.’ So they look at the no mitigation part – which is true, there is no mitigation – and they put it in the box. But it’s not probable. In order to say that the ice-frost ramps would be a probable source of damage, then you’ve got to pick a level. So what do you think is probable?Q: Bryan O’Connor (NASA’s safety chief) defined it as a 50-50 chance of catastrophic damage over 100 shuttle flights, the original design life of a shuttle.A: OK. So let’s take that. So if I think that I would expect to see damage on a greater than 50-50 shot over a hundred flights, then I’ve got to now explain to myself why I’ve flown 114 flights (now 115) and don’t see any damage we can attribute to an ice-frost ramp. … So my assignment of this hazard would not be in the probable/catastrophic box. If it were me, I would label it as an infrequent/catastrophic hazard. And absolutely, we want to get to work on it. But having labeled it in a red box, I think was an error in labeling. What I want to see, by the way, is numbers. When we label it as a hazard we’re concerned about, what we’re saying is well, that means it rises to a level that makes it stand out among other risks associated with flying the orbiter. So we pay attention to that as we should and we want to fix it.But you’ve got to look at the assumptions behind that. What are the assumptions that caused us to raise it to that level? We make assumptions because we don’t have data. But here are the assumptions we make in order to get it to be a real concern. First of all, not every flight releases the same amount of mass from the tank. We have a distribution on that. So in order to get this to be a hazard, we have to assume that this flight is going to release the maximum amount of mass we’ve ever seen. The 99-percent amount we call it. Probably that’s not going to happen, right? But that’s what we assume. Then we have to assume the mass comes off in chunks that are bigger than we’ve ever seen. The biggest chunk we’ve ever seen come off with this mechanism is .084 pounds. So we set the limit on this thing at .25 pounds, which is the biggest chunk of mass that you could get off of an ice-frost ramp because that’s what the whole thing weighs. We’ve never actually seen that, but we assume that could happen. Then we have to assume that all the mass comes off and it comes off in big chunks and it comes off at the worst possible time, which is about a seven- or eight- or 10-second window in there … And then we have to say it hits the worst place on the orbiter.So if all that happens, then we have a hazard that we think rises to a level of real concern. Now we’re not ignoring it, we’re going to redesign the ice-frost ramps and we’re going to fix it. But I ask myself as an engineer, what are the odds that all those four bad things are going to come true over the next two or three flights while we do a redesign? And I say to myself, not very high. And in fact, when we go and analytically study that, the odds come down to like 1-in-400 or 500, which is well less than many other risks we’re taking on the orbiter.Q: But complex systems fail in complex ways and worst-case failures are not uncommon in aviation.A: It absolutely does happen and our analysis says it’s one in several hundred that it could happen here, OK? But I’m absorbing a higher risk than that to fly space shuttles at all. Rotating machinery would be well ahead on my list. Our micrometeorite and orbital debris hazard is 1-in-200. I remember flight readiness reviews from my youth where every damn moment of the flight readiness review was soaked up in turbopump seals. There are other hazards on this machine that we accept in order to fly it. Now that’s not good either, and we’re trying to transition to a new system … which will be at least 10 times safer than the shuttle on its best day. We can do better and we will do better. A long time ago, the nation accepted the shuttle design. … But if I can get individual risks like foam debris down to one in many hundreds, then that’s very acceptable in comparison to the other risks which we accept to fly this machine at all. And that’s where I think we are.Everyone says why’d you overrule your chief engineer and your safety guy? Well, that’s why. Because I believe when we analyze this thing in terms of what is likely to happen as opposed to a worst on worst on worst, the risk is very acceptable.Additional coverage for subscribers:VIDEO:LAUNCH PAD PRESS CHAT VIDEO:ATLANTIS ARRIVES AT LAUNCH PAD 39B VIDEO:ROLLOUT FROM VEHICLE ASSEMBLY BUILDING BEGINS VIDEO:TRUSS IN PAD’S PAYLOAD ROOM VIDEO:PAYLOAD HOISTED INTO THE PAD VIDEO:STATION TRUSS PAYLOAD DELIVERED TO PAD MORE: Telescopes.comLargest selection and the best prices anywhere in the world. Free shipping on select items. is the largest dealer of both Meade and Celestron Telescopes. Visit or call toll free 1-800-303-5873.John Glenn Mission PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The historic first orbital flight by an American is marked by this commemorative patch for John Glenn and Friendship 7.Final Shuttle Mission PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The crew emblem for the final space shuttle mission is available in our store. Get this piece of history!Celebrate the shuttle programFree shipping to U.S. addresses!This special commemorative patch marks the retirement of NASA’s Space Shuttle Program. Available in our store!Anniversary Shuttle PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!This embroidered patch commemorates the 30th anniversary of the Space Shuttle Program. The design features the space shuttle Columbia’s historic maiden flight of April 12, 1981.Mercury anniversaryFree shipping to U.S. addresses!Celebrate the 50th anniversary of Alan Shephard’s historic Mercury mission with this collectors’ item, the official commemorative embroidered patch.Fallen Heroes Patch CollectionThe official patches from Apollo 1, the shuttle Challenger and Columbia crews are available in the store.Ares 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Expedition 21The official embroidered patch for the International Space Station Expedition 21 crew is now available from our stores.Hubble PatchThe official embroidered patch for mission STS-125, the space shuttle’s last planned service call to the Hubble Space Telescope, is available for purchase. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.STS-115 Mission Specialist 1Joseph R. Tanner NASA BIOGRAPHYPosted: September 3, 2006 Credit: NASAPERSONAL DATA: Born in Illinois in 1950. Married. Two children. Joe enjoys swimming, camping, mountaineering, and spending time with his family.

    September 20th, 2014 at 9:06 pm (#)

  263. Woolrich Parka Mujer says:

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    September 20th, 2014 at 9:06 pm (#)

  264. Ugg?Orejera says:

    STORY WRITTEN FOR & USED WITH PERMISSIONPosted: April 17, 2007 Credit: NASANASA managers are reassessing whether to leave astronaut Sunita Williams aboard the international space station until August, a longer-than-planned stay because of a shuttle launch delay, or to bring her home aboard the Atlantis when flights resume in June, sources say.Williams was launched to the station aboard the shuttle Discovery in December. She originally planned to return to Earth aboard the shuttle Endeavour in June, after the flight of Atlantis in March. But Atlantis was grounded by hail damage to the ship’s external tank and the March launch has been delayed to no earlier than June 8. As a result, Endeavour’s launch has slipped to Aug. 9 and along with it, Williams’ ride home.Bill Gerstenmaier, NASA’s chief of spaceflight operations, said during a news conference April 10 that barring major problems, Williams would come home in August aboard Endeavour as planned. He said the impact of additional exposure to space radiation was minimal.Sources, however, now say NASA is revisiting the issue but a timetable for making a final decision was not known.For her part, Williams said during an earlier interview she was not overly concerned about increased exposure to space radiation or any other aspects of a longer-than-planned stay in space.”Well, you know, I’ve been in constant contact with my flight surgeon and he’s keeping me up to date on the concerns we have,” she told reporters during a news conference April 10. “I think eight months is fine from all the indications I’ve heard, we’re at a time right now where we’re not getting too much extra radiation from activity on the sun. So I think right now, all indications say that’s no problem.”During an interview Monday evening, she was asked again whether she might come home early.”I think, actually, the jury is out on that,” she said. “I think they are debating this week when to bring me home – on the next shuttle or the shuttle after that. So it is up in the air. That’s just par for the course. I have a Navy background and been on deployments that have been extended and shortened. It’s no big deal.”Whatever happens, she said, “I’m happy to stay, I’m happy to go home early and get Clay Anderson up here so that he can enjoy his time up in space. We’ll just have to see what happens.”Anderson is scheduled to launch aboard Endeavour in August to replace Williams. If a decision is made to bring her home aboard Atlantis in June, Anderson presumbably would be added to that crew and launched ahead of schedule. The impact of such a change on crew training, the sequence of spacewalks aboard the space station and whether NASA would add an astronaut to Endeavour’s crew to replace Anderson is not yet known.John Glenn Mission PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The historic first orbital flight by an American is marked by this commemorative patch for John Glenn and Friendship 7.Final Shuttle Mission PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The crew emblem for the final space shuttle mission is available in our store. Get this piece of history!Celebrate the shuttle programFree shipping to U.S. addresses!This special commemorative patch marks the retirement of NASA’s Space Shuttle Program. Available in our store!Anniversary Shuttle PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!This embroidered patch commemorates the 30th anniversary of the Space Shuttle Program. The design features the space shuttle Columbia’s historic maiden flight of April 12, 1981.Mercury anniversaryFree shipping to U.S. addresses!Celebrate the 50th anniversary of Alan Shephard’s historic Mercury mission with this collectors’ item, the official commemorative embroidered patch.Fallen Heroes Patch CollectionThe official patches from Apollo 1, the shuttle Challenger and Columbia crews are available in the store. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.NASA Television Schedule COMPILED BY WILLIAM HARWOODPosted: June 19, 2007Changes and additions:- June 17: Rev. N- June 19: Rev. OEditor’s note:An asterisk denotes a change fromthe previous schedule. NASA’s daily video highlights reel will be replayed on the hour during crew sleep periods. The timeing of actual events is subject to change and some events may or may not be carried live on NASA television.NASA Note: NASA Television is now carried on an MPEG-2 digital signal accessed via satellite AMC-6, at 72 degrees west longitude, transponder 17C, 4040 MHz, vertical polarization. A Digital Video Broadcast (DVB) – compliant Integrated Receiver Decoder (IRD) with modulation of QPSK/DBV, data rate of 36.86 and FEC 3/4 will be needed for reception. NASA mission coverage will be simulcast digitally on the Public Services Channel (Channel #101); the Education Channel (Channel #102) and the Media Services Channel (Channel #103). Further information is available . Mission Audio can be accessed on AMC-6, Transponder 13, 3971.3 MHz, horizontal polarization.ORB.EVENT…………………………….DD/HH:MM…EDT……..GMTTUESDAY, JUNE 19 – Flight Day 12166…ATLANTIS/ISS CREW WAKE UP (FD-12)….10/11:00…06:38 AM…10:38167…ISS FLIGHT DIRECTOR UPDATE………..10/11:52…07:30 AM…11:30168…ISS FLIGHT DIRECTOR UPDATE REPLAY….10/12:52…08:30 AM…12:30168…VIDEO FILE………………………10/13:22…09:00 AM…13:00168.*.CENTERLINE CAMERA INSTALLATION…….10/13:50…09:28 AM…13:28170…ATLANTIS UNDOCKS FROM ISS…………10/15:04…10:42 AM…14:42170…ISS FLYAROUND BEGINS……………..10/15:27…11:07 AM…15:07170.*.FINAL SEPARATION FROM ISS…………10/16:47…12:25 PM…16:25171.*.VTR PLAYBACK OF UNDOCKING…………10/18:40…02:18 PM…18:18172…LATE HEAT SHIELD INSPECTION……….10/19:05…02:43 PM…18:43173…MISSION STATUS BRIEFING…………..10/21:22…05:00 PM…21:00174…OBSS BERTH………………………10/22:40…06:18 PM…22:18176…ATLANTIS CREW SLEEP BEGINS………..11/02:30…10:08 PM…02:08177…FLIGHT DAY 12 HIGHLIGHTS………….11/03:22…11:00 PM…03:00WEDNESDAY, JUNE 20 – Flight Day 13182…ATLANTIS CREW WAKE UP (FD-13)……..11/10:30…06:08 AM…10:08185…CABIN STOWAGE BEGINS……………..11/13:30…09:08 AM…13:08185…FCS CHECKOUT…………………….11/14:30…10:08 AM…14:08186…RCS HOT FIRE…………………….11/15:40…11:18 AM…15:18186…VIDEO FILE………………………11/16:22…12:00 PM…16:00186…CREW DEORBIT BRIEFING…………….11/16:55…12:33 PM…16:33188.*.NBC NEWS/ABC NEWS/CNN INTERVIEWS…..11/19:25…03:03 PM…19:03189…MISSION STATUS BRIEFING…………..11/21:22…05:00 PM…21:00190…KU BAND ANTENNA STOWAGE…………..11/22:50…06:28 PM…22:28191…WILLIAMS RECUMBENT SEAT SETUP……..11/23:55…07:33 PM…23:33192…ATLANTIS CREW SLEEP BEGINS………..12/02:00…09:38 PM…01:38192…FLIGHT DAY 13 HIGHLIGHTS………….12/02:22…10:00 PM…02:00THURSDAY, JUNE 21 – Flight Day 14197…ATLANTIS CREW WAKE UP (FD-14)……..12/10:00…05:38 AM…09:38199…VIDEO FILE………………………12/12:22…08:00 AM…12:00199…DEORBIT PREPARATIONS BEGIN………..12/13:05…08:43 AM…12:43200…PAYLOAD BAY DOOR CLOSING………….12/14:34…10:12 AM…14:12202…DEORBIT BURN…………………….12/17:14…12:52 PM…16:52203…C-BAND RADAR ACQUISITION………….12/18:03…01:41 PM…17:41203…KSC LANDING……………………..12/18:16…01:54 PM…17:54 | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.NASA urges patience as Russians work on computer glitches BY WILLIAM HARWOOD

    September 20th, 2014 at 9:06 pm (#)

  265. Botas Mujeres Timberland 14 Inch says:

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  267. Hombres Timberland Online 6 Inch says:

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    September 20th, 2014 at 9:08 pm (#)

  268. UGG Casual Botas says:

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    September 20th, 2014 at 9:10 pm (#)

  270. Parajumpers Hombre Kodiak says:

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    September 20th, 2014 at 9:10 pm (#)

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    September 20th, 2014 at 9:11 pm (#)

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    September 20th, 2014 at 9:11 pm (#)

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    September 20th, 2014 at 9:11 pm (#)

  274. Anonymous says:

    Reuters reports the protesters, many of who were Islamic Salafists, chanted, “Obama, Obama, we are all Osamas” in reference to the slain al Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden.

    September 20th, 2014 at 9:12 pm (#)

  275. UGG Casual says:

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    September 20th, 2014 at 9:13 pm (#)

  276. UGG Mujer says:

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    September 20th, 2014 at 9:13 pm (#)

  277. UGG Casuals says:

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  278. Canada Goose Hombre says:

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  280. MBT Wingu Shoes says:

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  282. UGG Ni?os Botas says:

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    September 20th, 2014 at 9:15 pm (#)

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  284. Parajumpers Mujer Denali says:

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    September 20th, 2014 at 9:16 pm (#)

  285. Parajumpers Mujer Long Bear says:

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    September 20th, 2014 at 9:17 pm (#)

  286. Camisas & Blusas says:

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    September 20th, 2014 at 9:17 pm (#)

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  290. Anonymous says:

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    September 20th, 2014 at 9:20 pm (#)

  291. MBT Moja Shoes says:

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    September 20th, 2014 at 9:21 pm (#)

  292. Moncler Blanco Mujer says:

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    September 20th, 2014 at 9:21 pm (#)

  293. Canada Goose Youth&Baby says:

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    September 20th, 2014 at 9:21 pm (#)

  294. MBT Shoes VOI says:

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    September 20th, 2014 at 9:22 pm (#)

  295. Botas Timberland New Arrival says:

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    September 20th, 2014 at 9:22 pm (#)

  296. Anonymous says:

    After offering no evidence in his defense during the trial, McNeill told Superior Court Judge Jim Ammons on Tuesday that he wanted no one to testify on his behalf before sentencing. He even forbade his lawyers from offering any closing arguments to jurors, WRAL reports.

    September 20th, 2014 at 9:22 pm (#)

  297. Moncler Marron Mujer says:

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    September 20th, 2014 at 9:23 pm (#)

  298. UGG Botas Foxfur says:

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    September 20th, 2014 at 9:24 pm (#)

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  301. Preppy Chic says:

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    September 20th, 2014 at 9:26 pm (#)

  302. SINGAPORE DOLLAR says:

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    September 20th, 2014 at 9:26 pm (#)

  303. UGG Botas Maduros says:

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    September 20th, 2014 at 9:27 pm (#)

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    September 20th, 2014 at 9:27 pm (#)

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    September 20th, 2014 at 9:28 pm (#)

  308. UGG Bailey Button Botas 5808 says:

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    September 20th, 2014 at 9:29 pm (#)

  309. Anonymous says:

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    September 20th, 2014 at 9:29 pm (#)

  310. UGG Maylin Suede Boots says:

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    September 20th, 2014 at 9:29 pm (#)

  311. UGG Classic Tall says:

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    September 20th, 2014 at 9:30 pm (#)

  312. Hombres Timberland EarthKeepers says:

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    September 20th, 2014 at 9:30 pm (#)

  313. MBT Moja Zapatos says:

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    September 20th, 2014 at 9:31 pm (#)

  314. Baracuta says:

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    September 20th, 2014 at 9:31 pm (#)

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    September 20th, 2014 at 9:31 pm (#)

  316. US Dollar says:

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    September 20th, 2014 at 9:32 pm (#)

  317. Woolrich Bufandas says:

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    September 20th, 2014 at 9:33 pm (#)

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    September 20th, 2014 at 9:33 pm (#)

  319. Norwegian Krone says:

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    September 20th, 2014 at 9:33 pm (#)

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    September 20th, 2014 at 9:34 pm (#)

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    September 20th, 2014 at 9:35 pm (#)

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    September 20th, 2014 at 9:35 pm (#)

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    September 20th, 2014 at 9:35 pm (#)

  324. SINGAPORE DOLLAR says:

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    September 20th, 2014 at 9:36 pm (#)

  325. Anonymous says:

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    September 20th, 2014 at 9:36 pm (#)

  326. UGG Botas Tacones Altos says:

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    September 20th, 2014 at 9:36 pm (#)

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    September 20th, 2014 at 9:37 pm (#)

  328. Mochilas y bolsas says:

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    September 20th, 2014 at 9:37 pm (#)

  329. UGG Botas Zapatillas says:

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    September 20th, 2014 at 9:38 pm (#)

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    September 20th, 2014 at 9:39 pm (#)

  334. Woolrich Online Espa?a says:

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    September 20th, 2014 at 10:39 pm (#)

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    September 20th, 2014 at 10:42 pm (#)

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    September 20th, 2014 at 10:44 pm (#)

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  465. UGG Botas Destellos says:

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    September 20th, 2014 at 10:49 pm (#)

  466. Anonymous says:

    Go to Settings>>Sounds>>Ringtone>>Vibration. You can tap out patterns to record. Or, you can go into your contacts list and hit Edit and select the Vibration option for each contact.

    September 20th, 2014 at 10:50 pm (#)

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    September 20th, 2014 at 10:50 pm (#)

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    September 20th, 2014 at 10:51 pm (#)

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    This 45-year-old September festival draws more than 1,500 dancers and representatives from 70 tribes, which makes it one of the biggest gatherings in the North Central states. “It’s one of the must-dos on the circuit. It wraps up a long summer of powwowing,” Gowder says. This year, it’s Sept. 4-7.

    September 20th, 2014 at 10:52 pm (#)

  473. UGG Sheepskin Cuff says:

    (Thanks to for bringing this to our attention.)The San Diego Padres beat the Cincinnati Reds, 1-0, on Monday despite notching only one hit in the contest. The effort finished off a brutal and historically bad month of offensive impotence for the Padres, who rank dead last in the Majors in hits, runs, batting average, on-base percentage and slugging.

    September 20th, 2014 at 10:52 pm (#)

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  475. 2013 Winter New Arrival says:

    Nine Padres have more than 150 at-bats to date in 2014. Of them, seven are hitting under .220. Will Venable, Yasmani Grandal and the injured Jedd Gyorko are all below the Mendoza Line.

    September 20th, 2014 at 10:53 pm (#)

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    Sen. Michael Bennet: Well I think there was so much in transition going on in the last election, I mean a feeling the last eight years had really in a lot of ways been a disaster for the country and it was clear the change – a change – had to happen. And I think that’s why you saw that kind of margin. But I think the president will do very well in Colorado, I think his margin will be strong here. Partly because people understand how difficult it is to turn this all around, and I think they have a sense that he has a real appreciation for the struggles they have in their lives, and he’s been consistent on that from the very beginning not only of his election but when he was running the last time.

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  480. Moncler Gris Mujer says:

    The conviction of Zine El Abidine Ben Ali and Leila Trabelsi followed a day-long trial before the Tunis criminal court. The couple went into exile on Jan. 14 in Saudi Arabia after a month-long uprising that sparked a string of other uprisings in the Arab world.

    September 20th, 2014 at 10:56 pm (#)

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    Edwin Jackson (2-4) lost his fourth straight decision despite allowing six hits in eight innings. Then with Arizona, Jackson no-hit Tampa Bay last June 26 despite walking eight.

    September 20th, 2014 at 10:56 pm (#)

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    He went on Fox News show Hannity to talk about his new book, UnPHILtered, but addressed the news first. ?After citing some Bible passages, he told Hannity his view of the situation.

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    Bucket list tip: Wendt suggests scheduling your float toward the end of the April-through-October season. It’s less crowded and the softer lighting later in the year makes for great photos.

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    Instead of reaching for the sky, this 44-story building designed by architect Rem Koolhaas wows visitors with an angular design of connected towers. “He inverted the skyscraper and makes a loop to represent the connectivity needed in the telecommunications business,” Dupre says. “It’s an extraordinary engineering feat.”

    September 20th, 2014 at 11:02 pm (#)

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    September 20th, 2014 at 11:03 pm (#)

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    “North Korea not only wants unification, it absolutely has to have unification. That’s really the only way this state can feel secure. We don’t take enough notice of the fact that these two states have been locked in a kind of legitimacy struggle ever since the peninsula was divided. Each state has to prove that it is superior to the other, in order to maintain public support.”

    September 20th, 2014 at 11:03 pm (#)

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    Not even three weeks later, Egypt’s army too turned on its commander in chief and 82-year-old Hosni Mubarak, who had ruled Egypt for almost three decades as the quintessential symbol of Middle East status quo, suddenly resigned.

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    September 20th, 2014 at 11:06 pm (#)

  503. Timberland High Top Boots says:

    Bucket list tip: Visit a neighborhood tavern called a meyhane. Order mezes and sip raki, an anise-flavored liquor. One favorite: Refik,

    September 20th, 2014 at 11:07 pm (#)

  504. Timberland Hombre Roll Top Botas says:

    Another fire sparked by lightning Monday in Rocky Mountain National Park has grown to an estimated 400 acres in area with trees killed by pine beetles.

    September 20th, 2014 at 11:07 pm (#)

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    Formerly called the Seneca powwow, this annual mid-July event recently changed its name to honor a tribal member who served in the Korean and Vietnam wars. “It’s one of the biggest in the Northeast,” Gowder says.

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    The average starting salary for a certified Microsoft Office Specialist is $62,849, which is around $5,200 higher than the median salary for bachelor’s degree holders. Microsoft Solutions Associates typical start at $73,149 per year and a certified Solutions Administrator earns around $77,000, according to IT Career Finder. A certified Microsoft Office Specialist is oftentimes qualified for these and other positions, such as office manager and executive assistant positions. There are no specific degree requirements to take the MOS certification.

    September 20th, 2014 at 11:09 pm (#)

  509. Danish Krona says:

    Road trip tip: While the Southwest offers the most famous scenery, don’t neglect the start of the route in Illinois. Jensen recommends the town of Pontiac, home to two great stops, the Route 66 Association Hall of Fame & Museum and the Pontiac Oakland Auto Museum, a memorable tribute to the car brands.

    September 20th, 2014 at 11:09 pm (#)

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    September 20th, 2014 at 11:10 pm (#)

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    September 20th, 2014 at 11:11 pm (#)

  514. Minnetonka says:

    If you can maintain that sense of purpose and motivation, you are sure to do well in the semesters to come.Doug Powell doesn’t bring wine when he’s invited to dinner.

    September 20th, 2014 at 11:11 pm (#)

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    But Obst’s lies haven’t been believed every time by her daughter.

    September 20th, 2014 at 11:11 pm (#)

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    With that said, other countries have felt the impact of injuries and withdrawals, as well. Tony Parker (France), Dirk Nowitzki (Germany), Manu Ginobili (Argentina) and Andrew Bogut (Australia) are among the most prominent non-USA players skipping the tournament.

    September 20th, 2014 at 11:12 pm (#)

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    September 20th, 2014 at 11:15 pm (#)

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    September 20th, 2014 at 11:15 pm (#)

  528. Calcetines says:

    Nancy Cordes: When I ask you where that $300 million is coming from, you’re going to tell me that you have thousands of small donors who have been giving and I’m sure that the case. But the lion’s share of your money is coming from multi-million dollar donors. Is this what the political process is supposed to be about?

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    September 20th, 2014 at 11:16 pm (#)

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    STORY WRITTEN FOR & USED WITH PERMISSIONPosted: June 12, 2004Cassini represents the end of an era in U.S. spacecraft and mission design, a multi-billion-dollar, multi-instrument robot with a broad science agenda requiring the efforts of more than 5,000 scientists and engineers from 17 nations. The Cassini-Huygens mission emblem. Credit: NASA/JPLPrecursor missions included the Pioneer and Voyager deep space probes, which carried out the initial reconnaissance of the outer solar system with flybys of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune in the 1970s and 1980s. Venus, Mars and Jupiter were the focus of what amounted to NASA’s second wave of exploration with orbiters sent to each planet for long-term observations: the radar-mapping Magellan to Venus, the recently completed Galileo mission to Jupiter and multiple orbiters and landers to Mars. As initially envisioned, Cassini was part of a dual mission known as CRAF-Cassini. Both programs were to be built around the same Mariner Mark II spacecraft design to minimize costs. CRAF, or the Comet Rendezvous and Flyby Mission, was to do what its name suggested. Cassini was to explore Saturn. But the CRAF mission was cancelled in 1992 and a few months later, new NASA Administrator Daniel Goldin, author of what would become known as the “faster, better, cheaper” mission design philosophy, threatened to cancel Cassini as well, deriding the expensive spacecraft as a “Battlestar Galactica.” Cassini lifts off from Cape Canaveral atop a Titan 4B rocket. Credit: NASA-KSC”With many countries participating in this great mission, none of us could imagine Goldin taking this drastic step and damaging our country’s relationship with the Europeans,” wrote former Cassini mission manager Charles Kohlhase in an article for The Planetary Society. “To our joy, on June 14, 1994, Jean-Marie Luton (then director general of ESA) sent a powerful letter to Vice President Al Gore, with copies to the U.S. secretary of state, key office directors, and of course Dan Goldin.” The letter concluded with a paragraph that Kohlhase said saved Cassini from the budget axe: “Europe therefore views any prospect of a unilateral withdrawal from the cooperation on the part of the United States as totally unacceptable. Such an action would call into question the reliability of the U.S. as a partner in any future major scientific and technological cooperation.” European participation in upcoming NASA projects, including the agency’s flagship international space station program, was considered crucial and in the end, the Cassini project survived. When all was said and done, NASA spent $2.6 billion on the project, the European Space Agency spent $500 million and the Italian Space Agency chipped in $160 million for a total cost of about $3.26 billion. Getting to Saturn took almost as much time as it took to get the project approved and launched: 6.7 years. Because NASA did not have a rocket capable of boosting the heavyweight Cassini directly to Saturn, the spacecraft was forced to take a convoluted route, using the gravity of Venus, Earth and Jupiter to build up the velocity necessary to reach its target. The Centaur upper stage of the U.S. Air Force Titan 4B rocket that launched Cassini on Oct. 15, 1997, was used to slow the craft down so it could fall into the inner solar system. After flying by Venus on April 26, 1998, and again on June 24, 1999, Cassini streaked past Earth at an altitude of just 727 miles or so on Aug. 18, 1999. From there, the spacecraft headed for Jupiter and a final velocity boosting flyby on Dec. 30, 2000. This graphic illustrates Cassini’s long trek to Saturn. Credit: NASA/JPLWhile Cassini’s primary mission is to last four years, it has enough power and propellant to last many years beyond, should NASA choose to fund additional mission support. “We’re long overdue for a visit to the lord of the rings,” said Orlando Figueroa, director of solar system exploration at NASA headquarters. “We’re looking forward to significant science coming out of the mission and we intend to keep it alive for as long as we can. This is a flagship mission of incredible importance to solar system exploration.” Throughout its seven-year voyage to Saturn, Cassini has operated in near flawless fashion. Aside from the issue with the receiver needed to collect data from Huygens, engineers have encountered only four other problems of any significance. For reasons still not fully understood, the optics in Cassini’s narrow-angle camera clouded up after launch, producing blurry images. But by warming the optics in a carefully controlled fashion, engineers were able to clear up the problem “to the point where we think it is at least as good as it ever was before,” said program manager Bob Mitchell. Another problem involved a radio science experiment, one unrelated to the issue with the Huygens probe. A component in a Ka-band radio failed well into the mission, resulting in a loss of sensitivity for certain gravitational wave studies. Part of that research was completed before the failure and other aspects of the experiment can be conducted as originally planned. The overall impact, Mitchell said, was minimal. A third problem is a large leak in the main helium regulator used to pressurize Cassini’s propulsion system for major rocket firings. Engineers believe foreign object debris, possibly from an explosive pyrotechnic device, which was fired shortly after launch to activate the system, lodged in the regulator, preventing a valve from seating fully. Helium is used to push propellants through Cassini’s plumbing and into the main engine’s combustion chamber at a constant pressure. The regulator controls that pressurization, which is needed for long firings like the upcoming Saturn Orbit Insertion burn. In this case, Cassini’s complexity and built-in redundancy came to the rescue. By delaying the opening of a downstream latch valve to just 70 seconds or so before main engine ignition, engineers were able to work around the regulator issue with no impact to mission operations. The procedure was used for a major 88-minute Deep Space Maneuver rocket firing back in 1998 and again in late May for a six-minute burn to fine-tune the Phoebe flyby trajectory. No one expects any problems for the Saturn Orbit Insertion burn. An artist’s concept of Cassini performing an engine firing. Credit: NASA/JPLThe fourth problem, and one that has at least some potential for downstream impact to normal operations, involves Cassini’s stabilizing reaction wheels. By controlling the spin of three such wheels, oriented 120 degrees apart, flight engineers can re-orient Cassini or keep it rigidly locked on target, reducing the spacecraft’s motion to 10 times less than the movement of a clock’s hour hand. A fourth wheel can be moved into position to take over in case of problems with any one of the other three. Two years ago, engineers noticed “some chatter, some vibration” in the bearings of reaction wheel No. 3. It’s a phenomenon known as cage instability, “kind of like a rattling ball bearing in your axle bearings of your car,” said Julie Webster, lead spacecraft engineer. To be on the safe side, wheel No. 4, the spare, was spun up and No. 3 was moved into the backup position. “So now we’re operating on wheels 1, 2 and 4 and they’re operating just fine,” Mitchell said. But friction levels also are increasing, albeit very slowly, in the other wheels. “We think it’s probably pretty normal, standard behavior,” Mitchell said. “We have talked to some projects … that have used wheels like this, or similar to this, and none of them has seen this kind of a problem. But none of them had the level of instrumentation that we’ve got, either. So we suspect they probably had exactly the same phenomena occurring and they just didn’t see it.” Engineers have analyzed the telemetry from the three operating wheels and “we have extrapolated it out to well beyond end of mission and it doesn’t get even close to what the torque threshold is for our ability to spin these things,” Mitchell said. “But it’s something that we’re keeping an eye on.”MISSION PREVIEWFallen Heroes special patchThis special 12-inch embroidered patch commemorates the U.S. astronauts who made the ultimate sacrifice, honoring the crews of Apollo 1, Challenger and Columbia.Choose your store: – – – Moon RushThis book examines how the exploration of space, specifically a commercial base on the Moon and Mars would transform our economies on the Earth as surely as the discovery of the New World transformed the old world of Europe.Choose your store: – – – Apollo 11 special patchSpecial collectors’ patch marking the 35th anniversary of the historic Apollo 11 moon landing is now available.Choose your store: – – – Get inside Apollo!Full color drawings reveal like never before the details of the Apollo Command and Service Modules.Choose your store: – – – | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Follow the Huygens probe’s descent to the surface of Saturn’s moon Titan! Reload this page for the latest on the mission.SATURDAY, JANUARY 15, 2005A missing computer command – apparently the result of human error – caused the loss of half the pictures taken by Europe’s Huygens probe as it descended to the surface of Saturn’s moon Titan. But project officials said today the 350 pictures that made it back, along with high-quality data fromthe spacecraft’s other instruments and unexpected measurements by Earth-based radio telescopes, should fulfill all of the mission’s primary objectives.Read our .Also, you can see our montage of Huygens pictures showing the landing area .Video coverage for subscribers only:VIDEO:THE NEW PICTURES PRESENTED WITH EXPERT NARRATION VIDEO:LISTEN TO SOUNDS FROM HUYGENS WITH NARRATION AUDIO:LISTEN TO SOUNDS FROM HUYGENS WITH NARRATION VIDEO:RESULTS FROM HUYGENS’ SURFACE SCIENCE PACKAGE VIDEO:CHIEF SCIENTIST EXPLAINS COMMUNICATIONS ERROR VIDEO:TODAY’S PHOTO AND SCIENCE BRIEFING AUDIO:TODAY’S PHOTO AND SCIENCE BRIEFING 2015 GMT (3:15 p.m. EST)Here is a press statement from Lockheed Martin:”After over seven years in space, the European Space Agency’s (ESA) Huygens probe has descended through the atmosphere of Titan, the largest of Saturn’s multitude of moons.”Pictures of Titan’s exotic environment were provided by the Descent Imager/ Spectral Radiometer (DISR), a complex instrument designed and built by Lockheed Martin for the University of Arizona and the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). NASA’s Cassini spacecraft, with the Huygens probe in tow, was inserted into orbit around Saturn on June 30, 2004, initiating four years of orbital science investigations of the giant ringed planet and its many mysterious moons.”We couldn’t be more pleased for our colleagues at the University of Arizona, NASA and ESA as Huygens has allowed us unprecedented access to one of the most mysterious moons in the solar system,’ said James Crocker, vice president, Civil Space, at Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company. ‘The superb performance of the DISR hardware and the many years of hard work by the DISR team are equally gratifying, and we’re proud to play a role in this exciting international voyage of exploration.’”As Huygens descended by parachute through Titan’s thick atmosphere, DISR made a range of imaging and spectral observations using several sensors and fields of view. The radiation balance of the atmosphere was measured by monitoring the upward and downward flow of radiation. A calculation of the size, number and density of suspended particles in the atmosphere was made possible by measuring the light intensity around the Sun. Two imagers (one visible, one infrared) observed the surface during the latter stages of the descent, and built up a mosaic of pictures around the touch down site. A side-view visible imager captured a horizontal view of the horizon and the underside of the cloud deck. The spectral measurements of the surface were enabled by a lamp that switched on shortly before touch down to augment the weak sunlight.”The study of Titan, Saturn’s largest moon, is one of the major goals of the Cassini/Huygens mission. Although it is believed to be too cold to support life, haze-covered Titan may preserve, in deep-freeze, many of the same chemical compounds that preceded life on Earth. The Huygens descent and touch down is the most distant descent by a robotic probe ever attempted on another object in the solar system. Over the course of the orbital mission, Cassini will have executed 45 flybys of Titan, coming as close as approximately 590 miles (950 km) above the surface.”This will permit high-resolution mapping of the moon’s surface with an imaging radar instrument, which can see through the opaque haze of Titan’s upper atmosphere.”The second largest planet in our solar system, after Jupiter, Saturn serves as a natural laboratory to better understand the formation of our Solar System five billion years ago, as the planet and its rings are a close analog to the disc of gas and dust surrounding the nascent Sun that formed the planets. Detailed knowledge of the dynamics of interactions among Saturn’s elaborate rings and numerous moons will provide valuable data for understanding how each of the solar system’s planets evolved.”The Cassini spacecraft was launched on a Lockheed Martin-built Air Force Titan IV/Centaur rocket Oct. 15, 1997. The Cassini propulsion module – also built by Lockheed Martin – is the largest U.S. planetary spacecraft propulsion system ever built, and was fired 17 times en route to Saturn, and will be ignited approximately 150 more times before the end of the mission. In addition to DISR, the Titan IV/Centaur and the propulsion system, Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company designed and built the three radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) that power spacecraft systems.”JPL designed, developed and assembled the Cassini orbiter. ESA managed the development of Huygens and is in charge of operations of the probe from its control center in Darmstadt, Germany. The Italian Space Agency provided the high-gain antenna, much of the radio system and elements of several of Cassini’s science instruments. JPL manages the overall program for NASA’s Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.”1135 GMT (6:35 a.m. EST)Tired and weary after a sleepless night spent sorting through their data, scientists today unveiled more pictures returned from the European Space Agency’s Huygens probe that landed on Saturn’s moon Titan Friday.PHOTO: PHOTO: PHOTO: PHOTO: 1040 GMT (5:40 a.m. EST)An apparently missing command caused the loss of Huygens’ Channel A data stream during descent to Titan yesterday, prompting ESA to form an investigation into the error. The Channel B data link worked, allowing over 300 pictures and information from the probe’s instruments to be relayed up to the Cassini orbiter. With two data paths, scientists had their choice of either relaying the same set of pictures to Cassini twice for redundancy or taking two sets of pictures to maximize the potential number of images. They opted to acquire two sets of pictures, and the lack of Channel A caused half of the expected number of pictures from Huygens to be lost. The Channel A problem also resulted in the loss of data for the Doppler wind experiment between Huygens and Cassini. But ESA’s chief scientist says data from radio telescopes on Earth that were listening to the tones from Huygens should allow researchers to complete the winds experiment. FRIDAY, JANUARY 14, 2005Initial pictures of Saturn’s moon Titan snapped by Europe’s Huygens probe during its historic atmospheric descent and touchdown today show an active world likely carved by the flow of cryogenic liquids that may still pool on its frigid surface, a leading planetary scientist says.Read our .Video coverage for subscribers only:VIDEO:THE FIRST PICTURE FROM HUYGENS IS REVEALED VIDEO:OFFICIALS OFFER THOUGHTS AFTER SEEING PICTURE VIDEO:HUYGENS POST-LANDING BRIEFING AUDIO:HUYGENS POST-LANDING BRIEFING VIDEO:STATUS REPORT DURING DESCENT AUDIO:MISSION STATUS REPORT DURING DESCENT VIDEO:HUYGENS PRE-ARRIVAL NEWS BRIEFING AUDIO:HUYGENS PRE-ARRIVAL NEWS BRIEFING VIDEO:OVERVIEW OF HUYGENS PROBE’S SCIENCE OBJECTIVES VIDEO:JULY NEWS BRIEFING ON CASSINI’S PICTURES OF TITAN VIDEO:PICTURES SHOWING TITAN SURFACE FROM OCT. FLYBY VIDEO:WHAT’S KNOWN ABOUT TITAN BEFORE THE FIRST FLYBY VIDEO:NARRATED MOVIE OF CLOUDS MOVING NEAR SOUTH POLE VIDEO:OCT. BRIEFING ON RADAR IMAGES OF TITAN SURFACE 2225 GMT (5:25 p.m. EST)ESA has not released any additional pictures. Another report is scheduled for 1000 GMT (5 a.m. EST) on Saturday.2129 GMT (4:29 p.m. EST)The European Space Agency unveiled the first raw images from the Huygens Titan probe today, black-and-white pictures showing ice blocks strewn across the surface and hard-to-interpret features resembling drainage channels and, possibly, a frigid shoreline of sorts.Read our .2043 GMT (3:43 p.m. EST)An extraordinary raw picture returned from Huygens shows the view from Titan’s surface. You can see the picture .2005 GMT (3:05 p.m. EST)There was just one picture released so far. European Space Agency plans to unveil more photos about two hours from now.2002 GMT (3:02 p.m. EST)You can see the first picture . It was taken at an altitude of 16 km as Huygens made its descent.1956 GMT (2:56 p.m. EST)The first image shows what appear to be drainage channels flowing to a possible shoreline, the camera’s scientist says. The pictures are raw and unprocessed.1955 GMT (2:55 p.m. EST)The first picture from the descending Huygens probe showing the Titan surface has been revealed in mission control!1930 GMT (2:30 p.m. EST)ESA has released some quote by various officials following today’s landing on Titan:”This is a great achievement for Europe and its U.S. partners in this ambitious international endeavour to explore the Saturnian system,” said Jean-Jacques Dordain, ESA’s director general. “Titan was always the target in the Saturn system where the need for ‘ground truth’ from a probe was critical. It is a fascinating world and we are now eagerly awaiting the scientific results,” says Professor David Southwood, director of ESA’s scientific program. “The Huygens scientists are all delighted. This was worth the long wait,” says Dr Jean-Pierre Lebreton, ESA Huygens mission manager. Huygens is expected to provide the first direct and detailed sampling of Titan’s atmospheric chemistry and the first photographs of its hidden surface, and will supply a detailed ‘weather report.’One of the main reasons for sending Huygens to Titan is that its nitrogen atmosphere, rich in methane, and its surface may contain many chemicals of the kind that existed on the young Earth. Combined with the Cassini observations, Huygens will afford an unprecedented view of Saturn’s mysterious moon. “Descending through Titan was a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity and today’s achievement proves that our partnership with ESA was an excellent one,” says Alphonso Diaz, NASA associate administrator of science. “The teamwork in Europe and the USA, between scientists, industry and agencies has been extraordinary and has set the foundation for today’s enormous success,” concludes Jean-Jacques Dordain. 1800 GMT (1:00 p.m. EST)Robert Mitchell, NASA’s Cassini program manager at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif., says the loss of one telemetry stream from the Huygens Titan probe appears to be the result of an actual problem of some sort on board the spacecraft.Read our .1745 GMT (12:45 p.m. EST)There will be a pause in live reports from ESA while the rest of the data is downlinked from Cassini and scientists have a chance to begin examining the mounds of information. The next event is expected after 1945 GMT (2:45 p.m. EST) with some initial science news, potentially the first pictures from Huygens. We’ll be posting them here as soon as they are released.1722 GMT (12:22 p.m. EST)NASA’s Cassini Saturn orbiter began downlinking science data from the European Space Agency’s Huygens probe at 11:19 a.m. EST (1619 GMT), confirming the spacecraft not only survived its high-speed plunge into the atmosphere of Saturn’s moon, Titan, but that its instruments worked to remotely explore one of the strangest worlds in the solar system.Read our .1706 GMT (12:06 p.m. EST)Engineers says the Channel A and Channel B data paths from Huygens are redundant with the exception that Channel A is needed for the Doppler wind experiment with the Cassini orbiter. The Channel A telemetry stream isn’t working as expected, but Channel B appears normal, ESA says.1701 GMT (12:01 p.m. EST)The temperature inside the probe was 25 degrees C as it was descending through 50 km altitude, the ongoing data review shows. 1658 GMT (11:58 a.m. EST)The probe went through the entry phase, the parachute deployment was within 15 seconds of the planned time and onboard accelerometer data worked normally, officials are saying at the news conference. The playback of data continues.1655 GMT (11:55 a.m. EST)ESA says data is being received normally on the Channel B telemetry steam. However, the Channel A has a question mark surrounding it.1645 GMT (11:45 a.m. EST)Here is a press statement from Alcatel:”The Huygens space probe has arrived on Titan. The probe was built by prime contractor Alcatel Space, a subsidiary of Alcatel, leading a consortium of 40 companies andlaboratories. Alcatel Space is the first European company to have met thechallenge of constructing a spacecraft designed to resist such draconianconditions. This is the first time that a man-made object has landed on themoon of a planet so far away in our solar system. This is also the firsttime that an European probe has successfully landed on another part of thesolar system.”The interplanetary voyage of Cassini/Huygens took seven years, and made useof successive gravity boosts from Venus (twice), the Earth and Jupiter.Huygens had to stand up to temperatures of 212 deg F near Venus, and made ablind crossing of the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter, then therings of Saturn. However, the technical challenge reached its zenith duringthe descent towards Titan, which lasted nearly three weeks after theseparation from the Cassini mother-craft on December 25. Followingaerodynamic braking in the upper atmosphere, then deployment of threeparachutes to control the descent, the probe landed on the surface ofTitan. Huygens is a veritable flying lab, featuring six advancedinstruments to carry out all measurements expected by the scientificcommunity.”Meanwhile, Cassini is in orbit around Saturn for its own observationmission, while relaying data from Huygens back to Earth.”The Cassini/Huygens programs was an unprecedented technical challenge,tackling aspects that had never before been studied:Major restrictions on mass and energy, given the distance to betraveled and the complex trajectory needed to reach Saturn via gravityboosts form Venus, Earth and Jupiter.Completely autonomous operation.High-precision Cassini/Huygens separation maneuvers.Thermal shield adapted to an entry into Titan’s atmosphere.Parachute deployment at supersonic speed.Sufficient robustness to stand up to unknown elements, especiallyatmospheric (furthermore, scientists have continuously changed their modelssince the knowledge of Titan was increased, which required an importanteffort to ensure successful entry).”We are especially proud of this huge success by our customer ESA, inpartnership with NASA and ASI,” said Pascale Sourisse, Chairman and CEO ofAlcatel Space. “Not only is it a world first in exploration of theuniverse, it also marks a major step forward in better understanding theorigins of life. With the Huygens mission now accomplished, we want toreaffirm our unyielding commitment to carrying out the most demandingprograms for interplanetary exploration and observation of the universe,alongside European scientists and space agencies. We hope that this missionwill pave the way to other adventures that prove to be just as exciting,both scientifically and technologically.”1635 GMT (11:35 a.m. EST)The news briefing has begun.”We have a scientific success,” ESA director general Jean-Jacques Dordain reports. “We are the first visitors of Titan.”1630 GMT (11:30 a.m. EST)We’re awaiting the start of a planned news conference. The top science officials from ESA and NASA were in the room and then left.1619 GMT (11:19 a.m. EST)The Huygens data is being received! Applause has erupted in the German control room after the tense and anxious wait. It will take some time to begin examining the information. The first pictures from Huygens could be released later today, if all has gone well. 1605 GMT (11:05 a.m. EST)Scientists, engineers and senior officials have gathered in a large crowd within the European mission control center. Everyone is nervously awaiting the first bits of data from Huygens.1545 GMT (10:45 a.m. EST)NASA’s Cassini Saturn orbiter has turned back toward Earth and started transmitting stored data from Europe’s Huygens probe, which was still broadcasting a faint carrier signal from the surface of the moon Titan more than two hours after touching down and well after Cassini had turned away.Read our .1530 GMT (10:30 a.m. EST)Scientists have another 40 minutes of suspense before the first Huygens data arrives on Earth, which will confirm probe’s transmissions to Cassini and recording aboard the orbiter has worked.1526 GMT (10:26 a.m. EST)The communications link between Cassini and Earth has been established. 1510 GMT (10:10 a.m. EST)”This is clearly an engineering success and we know the probe has been successfully entering the atmosphere, has been descending on the parachute to the surface,” said Jean-Pierre Lebreton, ESA’s Huygens project scientist.”But at this moment we cannot say more. I mean, we have not seen the data. What we have seen is a tone, a signal, which was indicating that the probe was transmitting but we have not seen any real data yet. So I would like to wait a bit more to say whether we have a successful mission or not.”The first Huygens data via the Cassini telemetry playback is expected in about an hour.1501 GMT (10:01 a.m. EST)A tone is still being emitted from Huygens and detected by radio telescopes on Earth, now more than two hours after landing. Meanwhile, Cassini has turned away from Huygens to re-point its communications antenna for relay of data to Earth. 1445 GMT (9:45 a.m. EST)Here is the press statement issued by the European Space Agency:”The Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in West Virginia, USA, a part of the global network of radio telescopes involved in tracking the Huygens Titan probe, has detected the probe’s ‘carrier’ (tone) signal.”The detection occurred between 11:20 and 11:25 CET (5:20-5:25 a.m. EST), shortly after the probe began its parachute descent through Titan’s atmosphere. The extremely feeble signal was first picked up by the Radio Science Receiver supplied by the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. This signal is an important indication that the Huygens probe is ‘alive’. However, it does not contain yet any substance; the latter is expected to come a few hours later via the Cassini spacecraft. “What the Green Bank radio telescope has detected is only a ‘carrier’ signal. It indicates that the back cover of Huygens must have been ejected, the main parachute must have been deployed and that the probe has begun to transmit, in other words, the probe is ‘alive’. This, however, still does not mean that any data have been acquired, nor that they have been received by Cassini. The carrier signal is sent continuously throughout the descent and as such does not contain any scientific data. It is similar to the tone signal heard in a telephone handset once the latter is picked up. “Only after having received the data packets at ESOC will it be possible to say with certainty whether data were properly acquired. The first data set from Cassini will reach ESOC in the afternoon. Additional downlinks will follow throughout the evening and night for redundancy. “Further analysis of the signals will be conducted using other three independent data acquisition systems at the Green Bank Telescope. In addition to the GBT, sixteen other radio telescopes in Australia, China, Japan and the USA are involved in tracking the Huygens probe. “The ultimate goal of the tracking experiment is to reconstruct the probe’s descent trajectory with an unprecedented accuracy of the order of one kilometre. The measurements will be conducted using Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) and Doppler tracking techniques. This would enable studies of the dynamics of Titan’s atmosphere, which is considered to be a ‘frozen’ copy of that of the early Earth. “The VLBI component of the tracking experiment is coordinated by the Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (JIVE) and ESA; the Doppler measurements are conducted by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.”1403 GMT (9:03 a.m. EST)Huygens remains alive and sending its beeping signal from the surface — more than an hour after controllers calculate it landed. The relay of science data to Cassini concludes later this hour as the orbiter goes over the horizon from the landing site.The first science information is expected on Earth about two hours from now.1332 GMT (8:32 a.m. EST)Mission controllers say the tone from Huygens is still being received! The craft appears to have landed around 1245 or 1246 GMT (7:45 or 7:46 a.m. EST) on Titan and continues to operate from the moon’s surface.1300 GMT (8:00 a.m. EST)A huge radio telescope at Green Bank, West Virginia, was able to detect and lock onto a faint carrier signal from the Huygens Titan probe for more than two hours this morning, confirming the spacecraft’s continued descent through the moon’s atmosphere following a high-speed entry.A second radio telescope now has picked up the signal as well and Europoean Space Agency project scientist Jean-Pierre Lebreton said engineers were even able to confirm at least one of the probe’s six on-board instruments had activated as planned.Read our .1115 GMT (6:15 a.m. EST)Huygens should be continuing its long, parachute-aided fall to the surface of Titan, with the large suite of science instruments operating to study the atmosphere and obtain volumes of pictures. Huygens is doing its work out of view from mission control. Real-time confirmation that the science program is being performed is not available because the craft is sending the information directly to the Cassini orbiter, which itself has turned away from Earth to receive the Huygens data.Earlier, controllers heard a simple tone emitted from Huygens that did announce the craft was at least alive.A news conference is coming up at 1230 GMT (7:30 a.m. EST). Cassini will resume communications with Earth about three hours later, and the data playback will continue for several hours.1033 GMT (5:33 a.m. EST)SIGNAL FROM HUYGENS! A radio telescope on Earth has detected a faint signal from the descending Huygens spacecraft, confirming the probe is alive, has survived its super-hot entry into the atmosphere and should be carrying out its scientific exploration on the way to the surface of Saturn’s moon Titan.This is just a signal with no actual data included. The data is being relayed to the Cassini orbit and will be played to Earth later today.Nonetheless, the fact that a signal has been received to verify that Huygens is functioning prompted screams and cheers in mission control.THURSDAY, JANUARY 13, 2005The European Space Agency’s Huygens probe, closing in on Saturn’s mysterious moon Titan, is racing toward a dramatic, high-speed plunge into the moon’s thick nitrogen atmosphere early Friday for a long-awaited parachute descent to an enigmatic surface.Released from NASA’s Cassini Saturn orbiter on Christmas Eve, the flying saucer-shaped probe is targeted to slam into Titan’s atmosphere at a velocity of 12,400 mph at 5:13 a.m. EST (1013 GMT).Over the next three to four minutes, the 705-pound probe is expected to endure peak heating of nearly 3,500 degrees and a braking force of some 16 Gs, slowing the craft to a more sedate 895 mph. At that point – 5:17 a.m. – the probe should release a small 8.5-foot pilot chute that will pull away a protective rear cover.Just 2.5 seconds later, the craft’s 27.2-foot-wide main parachute will unfurl. For the first time since pre-release tests, an on-board radio will begin transmitting data to Cassini around 5:18 a.m. as the NASA spacecraft streaks past Titan some 37,000 miles away.Huygens is expected to reach the surface of Titan around 7:31 a.m. But with its main antenna pointed toward the landing zone, Cassini will be out of contact with Earth, leaving anxious engineers and scientists in the dark until the NASA craft turns back toward Earth and begins transmitting recorded data around 10:17 a.m. That’s nearly three hours after Huygens touches down.Read our .WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 12, 2005In one of the boldest space missions ever attempted, a small European-built probe will slam into the atmosphere of Saturn’s mysterious moon Titan Friday for a two-and-a-half hour parachute descent to its smog-shrouded surface.Beaming pictures and a torrent of data to NASA’s Cassini Saturn orbiter, the flying saucer-shaped Huygens probe will give scientists their first close-up look at one of the largest expanses of unexplored territory in the solar system.Researchers are hopeful Huygens will answer their most pressing questions: whether hydrocarbons fall like rain and form pools of liquid ethane and similar compounds on the moon’s frigid surface; and what erosional or depositional processes are responsible for covering up impact craters and producing a relatively flat, mountain-free surface.No matter what Huygens actually sees on the surface, scientists expect to gain insights into the workings of a thick, complex atmosphere that in some respects mirrors Earth’s shortly after the planet’s birth.Read our .Read our earlier coverage.Ares 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Expedition 21The official embroidered patch for the International Space Station Expedition 21 crew is now available from our stores.Hubble PatchThe official embroidered patch for mission STS-125, the space shuttle’s last planned service call to the Hubble Space Telescope, is available for purchase. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Music rings of Saturn CASSINI PHOTO RELEASEPosted: September 29, 2004 Looking something like the fibrous bow of a violin, Saturn’s colorful rings sweep through this spectacular natural color view while two small moons look on. Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science InstituteDownload larger image version From left, the moons visible here are Janus (181 kilometers, or 112 miles across) and Mimas (398 kilometers, or 247 miles across). Cassini’s view in this image is from beneath the ring plane; the moons are on the far side of Saturn. Janus leads Mimas as the two moons orbit the planet. Nearly the entire ring system can be seen in this view. The diaphanous C ring appears at the upper right, followed by the multi-hued B ring. Next, the famous Cassini division (4,800 kilometers, or 2,980 miles wide) separates the A and B rings. The outer edge of the B ring which forms the inner boundary of the Cassini division is maintained by a gravitational resonance with Mimas. Near the outer edge of the A ring are the Encke Gap (325 kilometers, or 202 miles wide) and the barely visible Keeler Gap (35 kilometers, or 22 miles wide). The faint, thread-like F ring is discernible just beyond the main rings. The image was obtained with the Cassini spacecraft narrow angle camera on August 27, 2004, at a distance of 9.1 million kilometers (5.6 million miles) from Saturn. Images taken with red, green and blue filters were combined to create this color view. The moons have been enhanced in brightness to increase their visibility. The image scale is 54 kilometers (34 miles) per pixel. The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini-Huygens mission for NASA’s Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras, were designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging team is based at the Space Science Institute, Boulder, Colo. Ares 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Expedition 21The official embroidered patch for the International Space Station Expedition 21 crew is now available from our stores.Hubble PatchThe official embroidered patch for mission STS-125, the space shuttle’s last planned service call to the Hubble Space Telescope, is available for purchase. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Nature’s canvas at Saturn CASSINI PHOTO RELEASEPosted: November 29, 2004In a splendid portrait created by light and gravity, Saturn’s lonely moon Mimas is seen against the cool, blue-streaked backdrop of Saturn’s northern hemisphere. Delicate shadows cast by the rings arc gracefully across the planet, fading into darkness on Saturn’s night side. Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science InstituteDownload larger image version The part of the atmosphere seen here appears darker and more bluish than the warm brown and gold hues seen in Cassini images of the southern hemisphere, due to preferential scattering of blue wavelengths by the cloud-free upper atmosphere. The bright blue swath near Mimas (398 kilometers, or 247 miles across) is created by sunlight passing through the Cassini division (4,800 kilometers, or 2,980 miles wide). The rightmost part of this distinctive feature is slightly overexposed and therefore bright white in this image. Shadows of several thin ringlets within the division can be seen here as well. The dark band that stretches across the center of the image is the shadow of Saturn’s B ring, the densest of the main rings. Part of the actual Cassini division appears at the bottom, along with the A ring and the narrow, outer F ring. The A ring is transparent enough that, from this viewing angle, the atmosphere and threadlike shadows cast by the inner C ring are visible through it. Images taken with red, green and blue filters were combined to create this color view. The images were obtained with the Cassini spacecraft narrow angle camera on Nov. 7, 2004, at a distance of 3.7 million kilometers (2.3 million miles) from Saturn. The image scale is 22 kilometers (14 miles) per pixel. The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini-Huygens mission for NASA’s Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras, were designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging team is based at the Space Science Institute, Boulder, Colo. Cassini posterJust in time for the Cassini spacecraft’s arrival at Saturn, this new poster celebrates the mission to explore the ringed planet and its moons. 2005 CalendarThe 2005 edition of the Universe of the Hubble Space Telescope calendar is available from our U.S. store and will soon be available worldwide. This 12×12-inch calendar features spectacular images from the orbiting observatory.Moon panoramaTaken by Apollo 14 commander Alan Shepard, this panoramic poster shows lunar module pilot Edgar Mitchell as a brilliant Sun glare reflects off the lunar module Antares.Mars Rover mission patchA mission patch featuring NASA’s Mars Exploration Rover is now available from the Astronomy Now Store.Apollo 11 special patchSpecial collectors’ patch marking the 35th anniversary of the historic Apollo 11 moon landing is now available.Choose your store: – | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.New Cassini picture shows rings in extraordinary detail CASSINI PHOTO RELEASEPosted: December 14, 2004This fantastic close-up of Saturn’s outer C ring shows large and sharp changes in brightness across the rings, owing to the extreme variations in ring particle concentrations at different distances from the planet. The dark gap running through the center contains the Maxwell ringlet, as well as a faint, narrow ringlet discovered in Cassini images. Another very dark region to the right of the Maxwell gap is also a narrow gap. Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science InstituteDownload larger image version The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft narrow angle camera at a distance of about 836,000 kilometers (519,000 miles) from Saturn. The image scale is 4.6 kilometers (2.9 miles) per pixel. The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini-Huygens mission for NASA’s Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras, were designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging team is based at the Space Science Institute, Boulder, Colo. Ares 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Expedition 21The official embroidered patch for the International Space Station Expedition 21 crew is now available from our stores.Hubble PatchThe official embroidered patch for mission STS-125, the space shuttle’s last planned service call to the Hubble Space Telescope, is available for purchase. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.New view of Saturn’s rings and moons from Cassini CASSINI PHOTO RELEASEPosted: June 21, 2004 Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science InstituteDownload larger image version Saturn’s magnificent rings show some of their intricate structure in this image taken on May 11, 2004, by the Cassini spacecraft’s narrow angle camera. Although they appear to be solid structures, the rings are composed of billions of individual particles, each one orbiting the planet on its own path. Satellites visible in this image: Janus (181 kilometers, or 113 miles across) above the rings, and icy Enceladus (499 kilometers, or 310 miles across) below the rings. The F ring shepherd moons Prometheus and Pandora can be seen along Saturn’s outermost F ring if the image is further contrast enhanced. The image was taken in visible light from a distance of 26.3 million kilometers (16.4 million miles) from Saturn. The image scale is 158 kilometers (98 miles) per pixel. Contrast in the image was enhanced to aid visibility. The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini-Huygens mission for NASA’s Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras, were designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging team is based at the Space Science Institute, Boulder, Colo. Ares 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Expedition 21The official embroidered patch for the International Space Station Expedition 21 crew is now available from our stores.Hubble PatchThe official embroidered patch for mission STS-125, the space shuttle’s last planned service call to the Hubble Space Telescope, is available for purchase. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Newest picture from Cassini shows Saturn in color CASSINI PHOTO RELEASEPosted: August 6, 2004A frigid ball of gas in the blackness of space, Cassini’s new home, Saturn, appears cool and serene in this natural color image. The spacecraft obtained this view as it sped outward from the planet on its initial orbit. At the left, Saturn’s shadow stretches almost completely across the rings, while at the right, the planet’s illuminated face appears to gaze down at the far-off Sun. Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science InstituteDownload a larger version of image Images taken through blue, green and red filters with the Cassini spacecraft wide angle camera were combined to create this view. The images were taken on July 17, 2004, from a distance of about 5.8 million kilometers (3.6 million miles) from Saturn. The Sun-Saturn-spacecraft, or phase angle of the image is 93 degrees. The image scale is 346 kilometers (215 miles) per pixel. The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini-Huygens mission for NASA’s Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras, were designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging team is based at the Space Science Institute, Boulder, Colo. Ares 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Expedition 21The official embroidered patch for the International Space Station Expedition 21 crew is now available from our stores.Hubble PatchThe official embroidered patch for mission STS-125, the space shuttle’s last planned service call to the Hubble Space Telescope, is available for purchase. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Observatory watched Titan when Huygens arrived KECK OBSERVATORY NEWS RELEASEPosted: January 16, 2005The Huygens probe impacted Titan’s atmosphere at 0906 GMT (local time on Titan) Friday, with an expected landing on Titan’s mysterious surface three hours later. This near-infrared image shows Titan at the moment Huygens reached its target. Near-infrared surface image of Titan captured with Keck adaptive optics system moments after the Huygens probe reached its target. The bright and dark patterns on Titan’s surface may be regions of solid ice and of liquid hydrocarbons. Credit: W. M. Keck Observatory”Although no disturbances in Titan’s atmosphere were detected, the observations provide the best images that characterize the satellite at the moment of probe entry”, says Antonin Bouchez, a staff member at the Keck observatory, who was leading the observing effort.”It was worth getting up in the middle of the night for this historic moment”, says Fred Chaffee, director of the Keck Observatory, “despite the bad weather on the mountain”. Winds were blowing at 40-50 mph, while the mountain top itself was still cloaked with snow and ice from a recent storm. Other team members that particpated in the observations were David LeMignant from the Keck Observatory, Imke de Pater, a professor at the University of California at Berkeley, and Michael Brown, a professor at Caltech.Titan is of particular interest to scientists because it is the only moon in our solar system with a dense, methane-rich, nitrogen atmosphere, reminiscent of our own atmosphere here on Earth. The moon is cloaked in a thick, smog-like haze produced by the breakup of methane by sunlight. Further study of this moon could provide clues to planetary formation and evolution and, perhaps, about the early days of Earth as well. To get a closer look at Titan, scientists from three different international space agencies developed the Cassini-Huygens mission, a spacecraft orbiter that arrived in Saturn’s orbit in July 2004 after a seven-year voyage. The four-year mission will include 70 orbits around the ringed planet with an array of instruments to study the planet, its rings and its 30 known moons.The Huygen’s probe detached from Cassini on Christmas Eve, Dec. 24th, 2004. The probe has since been falling to Titan and entered the atmosphere shortly after midnight, local time on Friday morning (0906 GMT) January 14, 2005. Three sets of parachutes were to slow the probe and to provide a stable platform for scientific measurements. Instruments on board will collect information about the atmosphere’s chemical composition and the clouds surrounding Titan during its 2-2.5 hour descent. The data will be radioed to the Cassini orbiter, which will then relay the data to Earth.Near-infrared images were taken from the W. M. Keck Observatory with the near infrared camera, NIRC2, and the adaptive optics system at the time of probe entry. The team had planned imaging sequences to look for thermal emissions or condensates at the probe entry site. Video coverage for subscribers only:VIDEO:NEW PICTURES PRESENTED WITH EXPERT NARRATION VIDEO:LISTEN TO SOUNDS FROM HUYGENS WITH NARRATION AUDIO:LISTEN TO SOUNDS FROM HUYGENS WITH NARRATION VIDEO:RESULTS FROM HUYGENS’ SURFACE SCIENCE PACKAGE VIDEO:CHIEF SCIENTIST EXPLAINS COMMUNICATIONS ERROR VIDEO:SATURDAY PHOTO & SCIENCE BRIEFING AUDIO:SATURDAY PHOTO & SCIENCE BRIEFING VIDEO:THE FIRST PICTURE FROM HUYGENS IS REVEALED VIDEO:HUYGENS POST-LANDING NEWS BRIEFING VIDEO:STATUS REPORT DURING DESCENT AUDIO:MISSION STATUS REPORT DURING DESCENT VIDEO:HUYGENS PRE-ARRIVAL NEWS BRIEFING AUDIO:HUYGENS PRE-ARRIVAL NEWS BRIEFING VIDEO:OVERVIEW OF HUYGENS PROBE’S SCIENCE OBJECTIVES VIDEO:JULY NEWS BRIEFING ON CASSINI’S PICTURES OF TITAN VIDEO:PICTURES SHOWING TITAN SURFACE FROM OCT. FLYBY VIDEO:WHAT’S KNOWN ABOUT TITAN BEFORE THE FIRST FLYBY VIDEO:NARRATED MOVIE OF CLOUDS MOVING NEAR SOUTH POLE VIDEO:OCT. BRIEFING ON RADAR IMAGES OF TITAN SURFACE Ares 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Expedition 21The official embroidered patch for the International Space Station Expedition 21 crew is now available from our stores.Hubble PatchThe official embroidered patch for mission STS-125, the space shuttle’s last planned service call to the Hubble Space Telescope, is available for purchase. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Odd-looking moon Mimas photographed by Cassini CASSINI PHOTO RELEASEPosted: July 26, 2004Soon after orbital insertion, Cassini returned its best look yet at heavily cratered Mimas (398 kilometers, 247 miles across). The enormous crater at the top of this image, named Herschel, is about 130 kilometers (80 miles) wide and 10 kilometers (6 miles) deep. Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science InstituteThe image was taken in visible light with the narrow angle camera on July 3, 2004, from a distance of 1.7 million kilometers (1 million miles) from Mimas and at a Sun-Mimas-spacecraft, or phase, angle of about 102 degrees. The image scale is 10 kilometers (6 miles) per pixel. It has been magnified here by a factor of 2 to aid visibility.The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini-Huygens mission for NASA’s Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The imaging team is based at the Space Science Institute, Boulder, Colorado.Ares 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Expedition 21The official embroidered patch for the International Space Station Expedition 21 crew is now available from our stores.Hubble PatchThe official embroidered patch for mission STS-125, the space shuttle’s last planned service call to the Hubble Space Telescope, is available for purchase. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.One of Huygens’ two data routes not working BY WILLIAM HARWOOD

    September 20th, 2014 at 11:17 pm (#)

  533. Anonymous says:

    STORY WRITTEN FOR & USED WITH PERMISSIONPosted: January 14, 2005Robert Mitchell, NASA’s Cassini program manager at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif., says the loss of one telemetry stream from the Huygens Titan probe appears to be the result of an actual problem of some sort on board the spacecraft.”The evidence we have a problem on chain A is pretty clear,” he said. “I don’t think the continuing playback (of Huygens data from Cassini) is going to resolve that problem. We just need to sort out what happened with it.”Engineers at the European Space Agency’s Space Operations Center in Germany are receiving data from Huygens on chain, or channel, B but not from chain A. Both systems are identical and scientists should receive almost all of the desired data from chain B, Mitchell said.”The way the probe system works, there are two transmitters on the probe and there are two separate receivers on the orbiter so we have two separate, distinct data links between the probe and the orbiter,” he said. “These data links were deigned to be largely redundant, not 100 percent, but nearly so.”The way we sit now, it’s clear that the B channel is coming in loud and clear and up to this point, we haven’t missed a single data packet. Now on the A channel, we do have a problem and we’re still sorting out what happened thre. But this, I think, will be only a minor lien on the significance of the success that’s been accomplished here just because of the redundancy between the two sides.”Of course, the reason you put redundancy in the design to begin with is to make yourself resilient to whatever may have happened here,” Mitchell said. “So we’re still sorting out exactly what happened to the A chain, but we’ve got at least most of the data we expected to get.”Video coverage for subscribers only:VIDEO:STATUS REPORT DURING DESCENT AUDIO:TODAY’S STATUS REPORT DURING DESCENT VIDEO:HUYGENS PRE-ARRIVAL NEWS BRIEFING AUDIO:HUYGENS PRE-ARRIVAL NEWS BRIEFING VIDEO:OVERVIEW OF HUYGENS PROBE’S SCIENCE OBJECTIVES VIDEO:JULY NEWS BRIEFING ON CASSINI’S PICTURES OF TITAN VIDEO:PICTURES SHOWING TITAN SURFACE FROM OCT. FLYBY VIDEO:WHAT’S KNOWN ABOUT TITAN BEFORE THE FIRST FLYBY VIDEO:NARRATED MOVIE OF CLOUDS MOVING NEAR SOUTH POLE VIDEO:OCT. BRIEFING ON RADAR IMAGES OF TITAN SURFACE Ares 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Expedition 21The official embroidered patch for the International Space Station Expedition 21 crew is now available from our stores.Hubble PatchThe official embroidered patch for mission STS-125, the space shuttle’s last planned service call to the Hubble Space Telescope, is available for purchase. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Out from the shadows: Two new Saturnian moons CASSINI PHOTO RELEASEPosted: August 16, 2004With eyes sharper than any that have peered at Saturn before, the Cassini spacecraft has uncovered two moons, which may be the smallest bodies so far seen around the ringed planet. This image shows the tiny ‘worldlet,’ temporarily dubbed S/2004 S1, as it makes its way around the planet. A white box frames the moon’s location in the image. Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science InstituteThe moons are approximately 3 kilometers (2 miles) and 4kilometers (2.5 miles) across — smaller than the city ofBoulder, Colorado. The moons, located 194,000 kilometers(120,000 miles) and 211,000 kilometers (131,000 miles) from theplanet’s center, are between the orbits of two other saturnianmoons, Mimas and Enceladus. They are provisionally namedS/2004 S1 and S/2004 S2. One of them, S/2004 S1, may be anobject spotted in a single image taken by NASA’s Voyagerspacecraft 23 years ago, called at that time S/1981 S14.”One of our major objectives in returning to Saturn was tosurvey the entire system for new bodies,” said Dr. CarolynPorco, imaging team leader, Space Science Institute, Boulder,Colo. Porco planned the imaging sequences. “So, it’s reallygratifying to know that among all the other fantasticdiscoveries we will make over the next four years, we can nowadd the confirmation of two new moons, skipping unnoticedaround Saturn for billions of years until just now.?The moons were first seen by Dr. Sebastien Charnoz, a planetarydynamicist working with Dr. Andre Brahic, imaging team memberat the University of Paris. “Discovering these faintsatellites was an exciting experience, especially the feelingof being the first person to see a new body of our solarsystem,” said Charnoz. “I had looked for such objects forweeks while at my office in Paris, but it was only once onholiday, using my laptop, that my code eventually detectedthem. This tells me I should take more holidays.”The smallest previously known moons around Saturn are about 20kilometers (12 miles) across. Scientists expected that moonsas small as S/2004 S1 and S/2004 S2 might be found within gapsin the rings and perhaps near the F ring, so they weresurprised these small bodies are between two major moons. Smallcomets careening around the outer solar system would beexpected to collide with small moons and break them to bits. This shows the second new ‘worldlet,’ temporarily dubbed S/2004 S2. Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science InstituteThe fact that these moons exist where they do might providelimits on the number of small comets in the outer solar system,a quantity essential for understanding the Kuiper Belt ofcomets beyond Neptune, and the cratering histories of the moonsof the giant planets.”A comet striking an inner moon of Saturn moves many timesfaster than a speeding bullet,” said Dr. Luke Dones, an imagingteam member from the Southwest Research Institute in Boulder,Colo. “If small, house-sized comets are common, these moonsshould have been blown apart many times by cometary impactsduring the history of the solar system. The disrupted moonwould form a ring, and then most of the material wouldeventually gather back together into a moon. However, if smallcomets are rare, as they seem to be in the Jupiter system, thenew moons might have survived since the early days of the solarsystem.”Moons surrounding the giant planets generally are not foundwhere they originally formed because tidal forces from theplanet can cause them to drift from their original locations.In drifting, they may sweep through locations where other moonsdisturb them, making their orbits eccentric or inclinedrelative to the planet’s equator. One of the new moons mighthave undergone such an evolution.Upcoming imaging sequences will scour the gaps in Saturn’srings in search of moons believed to be there. Meanwhile,Cassini scientists are eager to get a closer look, if at allpossible, at their new finds. Porco said, “We are at this verymoment looking to see what the best times are for retargeting.Hopefully, we haven’t seen the last of them.”The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA,the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The JetPropulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Instituteof Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini-Huygens missionfor NASA’s Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. TheCassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras were designed,developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging team is based atthe Space Science Institute, Boulder, Colo.Ares 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Expedition 21The official embroidered patch for the International Space Station Expedition 21 crew is now available from our stores.Hubble PatchThe official embroidered patch for mission STS-125, the space shuttle’s last planned service call to the Hubble Space Telescope, is available for purchase. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Phoebe’s surface gives scientists clues to its origin CASSINI PHOTO RELEASEPosted: June 14, 2004Images collected during Cassini’s close flyby of Saturn’s moon, Phoebe, have yielded strong evidence that the tiny object may contain ice-rich material, overlain with a thin layer of darker material perhaps 300 to 500 meters (980 to 1,600 feet) thick. The surface of Phoebe is also heavily potholed with large and small craters. Images revealbright streaks in the ramparts of the largest craters, bright rays which emanate from smaller craters, and uninterrupted grooves across the face of the body.”The imaging team is in hot debate at the moment on the interpretations of our findings,” said Dr. Carolyn Porco, Cassini imaging team leader at the Space Science Institute in Boulder, Colo. “Based on our images, some of us are leaning towards the view that has been promoted recently, that Phoebe is probably ice-rich and may be an object originating in the outer solar system, more related to comets and Kuiper Belt objects than to asteroids.”In ascertaining Phoebe’s origin, imaging scientists are noting important differences between the surface of Phoebe and that of rocky asteroids which have been seen at comparable resolution. “Asteroids seen up close, like Ida, Mathilde, and Eros, and the small martian satellites do not have the bright ‘speckling’ associated with the small craters that are seen on Phoebe,” said Dr. Peter Thomas, an imaging team member from Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y.The landforms observed in the highest resolution images also contain clues to the internal structure of Phoebe. Dr. Alfred McEwen, an imaging team member from the University of Arizona, Tucson, said, “Phoebe is a world of dramatic landforms, with craters everywhere, landslides, and linear structures such as grooves, ridges, and chains of pits. These are clues to the internal properties of Phoebe, which we’ll be looking at very closely in order to understand Phoebe’s origin and evolution.”"I think these images are showing us an ancient remnant of the bodies that formed over four billion years ago in the outer reaches of the solar system,” said Dr. Torrence Johnson, an imaging team member from NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. “Battered and beat-up as it is, it is still giving us clues to its origin and history.”Phoebe may be an icy interloper from the distant outer solar system which found itself captured by giant Saturn in its earliest, formative years. Final conclusions on Phoebe’s origins await a combination of the results on Phoebe’s surface structures, mass and composition gathered from all 11 instruments, which collected data during the flyby on June 11, 2004.”This has been an impressive whirlwind flyby and it’s only a curtain raiser on the events about to begin,” said Porco. Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science InstituteDownload larger image version FIRST IMAGE: Images like this one, showing bright wispy streaks thought to be ice revealed by subsidence of crater walls, are leading to the view that Phoebe is an ice-rich body overlain with a thin layer of dark material. Obvious down slope motion of material occurring along the walls of the major craters in this image is the cause for the bright streaks, which are over-exposed here. Significant slumping has occurred along the crater wall at top left. The slumping of material might have occurred by a small projectile punching into the steep slope of the wall of a pre-existing larger crater. Another possibility is that the material collapsed when triggered by another impact elsewhere on Phoebe. Note that the bright, exposed areas of ice are not very uniform along the wall. Small craters are exposing bright material on the hummocky floor of the larger crater. Elsewhere on this image, there are local areas of outcropping along the larger crater wall where denser, more resistant material is located. Whether these outcrops are large blocks being exhumed by landslides or actual ‘bedrock’ is not currently understood. The crater on the left, with most of the bright streamers, is about 45 kilometers (28 miles) in diameter, front to back as viewed. The larger depression in which the crater sits is on the order of 100 kilometers (62 miles) across. The slopes from the rim down to the hummocky floor are approximately 20 kilometers (12 miles) long; many of the bright streamers on the crater wall are on the order of 10 kilometers (6 miles) long. A future project for Cassini image scientists will be to work out the chronology of slumping events in this scene. This image was obtained at a phase, or Sun-Phoebe-spacecraft, angle of 78 degrees, and from a distance of 11,918 kilometers (7,407 miles). The image scale is approximately 70 meters (230 feet) per pixel. No enhancement was performed on this image. Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science InstituteDownload larger image version SECOND IMAGE: A mosaic of two images of Saturn’s moon Phoebe taken shortly after Cassini’s flyby on June 11, 2004, gives a close-up view of a region near its South Pole. The view, taken about 13,000 kilometers (8,000 miles) from Phoebe, is about 120 kilometers (74 miles) across and shows a region battered by craters. Brighter material, likely to be ice, is exposed by small craters and streams down the slopes of large craters. The skyline is a combination of Phoebe’s shape and the formation of impact craters. Walls of some of the larger craters are more than 4 kilometers (2.5 miles) high. The image scale is 80 meters (264 feet) per pixel. Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science InstituteDownload larger image version THIRD IMAGE: Shown here is a mosaic of seven of the sharpest, highest resolution images taken of Phoebe during Cassini’s close flyby of the tiny moon. The image scales range from 27 to 13 meters (90 to 43 feet) per pixel. Smaller and smaller craters can be resolved as resolution increases from left to right. The number of blocks, or bumps on the surface also increases to the right. The Sun is coming from the right, so the bright-dark pattern is reversed between blocks and small craters. Grooves or chains of pits are seen on the left portion of the mosaic, which may mark fractures or faults induced by large impact events. Many of the small craters have bright rays, similar to recent craters on the Moon. There are also bright streaks on steep slopes, perhaps where loose material slid downhill during the seismic shaking of impact events. There are also places where especially dark materials are present, perhaps rich in carbon compounds. Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science InstituteDownload larger image version FOURTH IMAGE: On June 11, 2004, during its closest approach to Phoebe, Cassini obtained this extremely high resolution view of a dark, desolate landscape. Regions of different reflectivity are clearly visible on what appears to be a gently rolling surface. Notable are several bright-rayed impact craters, lots of small craters with bright-colored floors and light-colored streaks across the landscape. Note also the several sharply defined craters — probably fairly young features — near the upper left corner. This high-resolution image was obtained at a phase, or Sun-Phoebe-spacecraft, angle of 30.7 degrees, and from a distance of approximately 2,365 kilometers (1,470 miles). The image scale is approximately 14 meters (46 feet) per pixel. The image was high-pass filtered to bring out small scale features and then enhanced in contrast. Fallen Heroes special patchThis special 12-inch embroidered patch commemorates the U.S. astronauts who made the ultimate sacrifice, honoring the crews of Apollo 1, Challenger and Columbia.Choose your store: – – – Moon RushThis book examines how the exploration of space, specifically a commercial base on the Moon and Mars would transform our economies on the Earth as surely as the discovery of the New World transformed the old world of Europe.Choose your store: – – – Apollo 11 special patchSpecial collectors’ patch marking the 35th anniversary of the historic Apollo 11 moon landing is now available.Choose your store: – – – Get inside Apollo!Full color drawings reveal like never before the details of the Apollo Command and Service Modules.Choose your store: – – – | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Pictures show active world shaped by cryogenic liquids BY WILLIAM HARWOOD

    September 20th, 2014 at 11:17 pm (#)

  534. Timberland 14 Inch Boots says:

    Branson, Mo.

    September 20th, 2014 at 11:17 pm (#)

  535. UGG Botas 5816 Sienna Miller says:

    – On top the windswept summit of a Hawaiian volcano, a NASA instrument attached to the Japanese Subaru telescope measured distant winds raging on a strange world — Titan, the giant moon of Saturn — to help the robotic Huygens probe as it descends through Titan’s murky atmosphere next January.

    September 20th, 2014 at 11:17 pm (#)

  536. Timberland Mujer Roll Top Botas says:

    In the U.S. alone, have been infected with HIV by the end of 2008, the most recent year where statistics are available. Every 9.5 minutes, someone is infected with HIV. Currently, one out of five people living with HIV are unaware that they are infected.

    September 20th, 2014 at 11:17 pm (#)

  537. Armor-Lux says:

    Maryland’s CHEMS is one of three sensors that make up the Magnetospheric Imaging Instrument, MIMI, aboard NASA’s Cassini-Huygens spacecraft. MIMI is one of 12 science instruments on the main Cassini spacecraft and one of six instruments designed primarily to investigate the space environments around Saturn and its satellites. The Huygens probe, which has six instruments of its own, will investigate Saturn’s largest moon, Titan. Titan is the only moon in the solar system with its own atmosphere.MIMI and its science team are led by Stamatios (Tom) M. Krimigis, head of the space department of The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. Using MIMI, Krimigis, Hamilton and other members of the international MIMI team will profile the plasma environment of charged particles around Saturn and provide the first visible, global images of Saturn’s magnetosphere. Gaining a better understanding of Saturn’s magnetosphere and its interaction with the solar wind and solar storms promises to also help scientists better understand space weather and its interaction with the magnetosphere of our own planet.MIMI’s sensors combine three critical measurements to create that picture. In addition to Maryland’s CHEMS, there is the higher-energy particle detector LEMMS, primarily developed by the Max Planck Institute at Lindau, Germany, that looks at the distribution and strength of energetic ions and electrons near the spacecraft. MIMI’s ion and neutral camera, or INCA, uses an APL-developed technique known as energetic neutral atom imaging to provide a global view of the entire magnetosphere – a deep-space mission first. All of MIMI’s sensors are linked together by a central computer.The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency, and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini-Huygens mission for NASA’s office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL designed, developed and assembled the Cassini orbiter.UM Group Leads Space Physics Research

    September 20th, 2014 at 11:17 pm (#)

  538. Bailey Button Botas 5808 UGGS says:

    Posted: December 6, 2010L-0 DayDecember 8, 2010T-02:35:00….Poll stations to proceed with countdown master autosequence, fuel and oxidizer loadingT-01:40:00….Lower strongback umbilical towerT-01:00:00….Allow countdown autosequence to proceed with Stage 2 fuel bleed and thrust vector control bleedT-00:13:00….Poll by SpaceX launch directorT-00:11:00….Logical hold pointT-00:10:00….Begin terminal countdown sequenceT-00:09:43….Open prevalves to chill down first stage Merlin engine pumpsT-00:06:17….Issue command to align flight computerT-00:05:00….Terminate loading of gaseous nitrogen into second stageT-00:04:46….Transfer first and second stages to internal powerT-00:03:11….Arm flight termination systemT-00:03:02….Terminate liquid oxygen propellant toppingT-00:03:00….Verify movement of second stage thrust vector control steering actuatorsT-00:02:30….SpaceX launch director verifies “go” for launchT-00:02:00….Range verifies “go” for launchT-00:01:35….Terminate loading of helium pressurantT-00:01:00….Command flight computer to start-up state and turn on pad deck water deluge systemT-00:00:50….Check first stage thrust vector control steering actuatorsT-00:00:40….Pressurize first and second stage propellant tanksT-00:00:03….Command first stage engine ignition sequenceT-00:00:00….LiftoffData Source: SpaceXJohn Glenn Mission PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The historic first orbital flight by an American is marked by this commemorative patch for John Glenn and Friendship 7.Final Shuttle Mission PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The crew emblem for the final space shuttle mission is available in our store. Get this piece of history!Celebrate the shuttle programFree shipping to U.S. addresses!This special commemorative patch marks the retirement of NASA’s Space Shuttle Program. Available in our store!Anniversary Shuttle PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!This embroidered patch commemorates the 30th anniversary of the Space Shuttle Program. The design features the space shuttle Columbia’s historic maiden flight of April 12, 1981.Mercury anniversaryFree shipping to U.S. addresses!Celebrate the 50th anniversary of Alan Shephard’s historic Mercury mission with this collectors’ item, the official commemorative embroidered patch.Fallen Heroes Patch CollectionThe official patches from Apollo 1, the shuttle Challenger and Columbia crews are available in the store. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Falcon 9 launch timelineSPACEFLIGHT NOW

    September 20th, 2014 at 11:18 pm (#)

  539. Ugg Fox Fur says:

    Tip: As you pass the house at the end of the ride, look carefully. “You’ll see the Wicked Witch and her apple for Snow White. She’s lurking just outside the house.”

    September 20th, 2014 at 11:18 pm (#)

  540. MBT Changa Shoes says:

    STORY WRITTEN FOR & USED WITH PERMISSIONPosted: June 12, 2004 Cassini snaps a full view of Saturn and rings. Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science InstituteDownload a larger version Cassini’s 12 scientific instruments fall into two broad categories: Remote sensing and fields and particles.Remote Sensing InstrumentsImaging Science Subsystem (wide- and narrow-angle cameras)Visible and Infrared Mapping SpectrometerComposite Infrared SpectrometerUltraviolet Imaging SpectrographCassini RadarRadio ScienceFields and ParticlesCassini Plasma SpectrometerIon and Neutral Mass SpectrometerCosmic Dust AnalyzerDual Technique MagnetometerMagnetospheric Imaging Mass SpectrometerRadio and Plasma Wave Science InstrumentUnlike the Voyager probes and the Galileo mission to Jupiter, Cassini’s four optical remote sensing instruments are not mounted on an independently targetable scan platform. To observe a target, the entire spacecraft has to be re-oriented so the co-aligned optical instruments are properly aimed. Particles and fields instruments are mostly “scattered around the spacecraft,” said Julie Webster, lead spacecraft engineer. “What they want to do is, they want to sweep out mostly 360-degree coverage. So they don’t point, they roll.” And that requires the entire spacecraft to roll. It all makes for an enormously complicated ballet. “On Galileo, you pointed the antenna to Earth and you just left it there,” said program manager Bob Mitchell. “You had a scan platform, you had a spinning section for the fields and particles instruments, the radio science guys were always happy because the antenna was pointed to Earth and you just left it in that configuration and you let it fly and you collected data all the time. “For us, you’ve got four optical remote sensing instruments that want to point, if you’re lucky, in the same direction. You’ve got six fields and particles instruments that generally want to point someplace different. … You’ve got radar that wants to point off perpendicular to where the ORS (remote sensing) guys want to look. You’ve got an aeronomy instrument that wants to point someplace different yet and so you’ve got this constant tension among the different investigations about where they’re going to point this thing.” The science objectives for Cassini-Huygens includes Saturn and its rings, Titan and the other moons and the planet’s magnetosphere. Credit: NASA/JPLOn a typical day, Cassini will spend 16 hours or so collecting data, spending part of the time in an orientation that favors optical or radar studies and part of the time doing fields and particles work. During data collection, the high-gain antenna will be pointed away from Earth and Cassini will be operating on its own. “They’ll do 15 minutes of imaging of this and 15 minutes of that and maybe two hours for (a movie of Saturn’s atmosphere),” Webster said. “Then, we’ll go off in different places and maybe they’ll do a little mosaic. Of course, the interesting ones where everybody wants to be in the act are right around the icy satellite flybys and the Titans, and they’ve done a lot of horse trading over the years. “So they kind of work out times so that radar can take a little bit and maybe radio science, which has to point back to Earth can take a little bit and the ORS instruments can turn and take their pictures. It’s a highly choreographed scenario that they work out on a daily basis. George Balanchine doesn’t have anything on us!” Engineering and science data will be stored on two 2.2-gigabyte digital recorders that also hold backup copies of flight software for use as needed. After completing the day’s science observations, Cassini will re-orient itself, aim its high-gain antenna toward Earth and spend eight hours or more transmitting stored data to NASA’s Deep Space Network antennas in Australia, Spain and California. When the largest dishes are used, data rates of up to 165,900 bits per second are possible, allowing scientists to receive up to four gigabytes of data per day. “I’ve been with this thing since it was a hunk of aluminum,” Webster said in an interview. “Sometimes I take out pictures of the cabling and just marvel at the way this thing was cabled and put together. It’s been a joy to fly and it was a joy to build.” The remote sensing instruments will provide the spectacular pictures that will most appeal to the public. The cameras and spectrometers “will be addressing questions like what does the surface of Titan look like underneath its veil of haze? Are there craters there? Are there lakes?” project scientist Dennis Matson said before launch. “When we come close to the rings of Saturn and the surfaces of icy satellites and look at them at high resolution, what are they really going to look like? What are they composed of? What is the composition of Saturn’s atmosphere? How does that composition change from one place to another across Saturn? How does it change with time?” Credit: ESAThe fields and particles instruments “consist of particle spectrometers of various types, magnetometers, radio instruments and the magnetospheric imaging instrument,” Matson said. “Things this suite of instruments will address are things related to the nature of the plasma that surrounds Saturn, the nature of the magnetosphere, the characteristics of dust in the system.” The magnetosphere of the planet “is a gigantic magnetic bubble that surrounds Saturn,” he said. “It’s very complicated, it has structure to it, there are many different neighborhoods in the magnetosphere where special processes happen. We will be visiting those places, measuring what’s going on there, and for some of them we’ll actually be able to take pictures of the processes as they occur. “Saturn also has a big magnetic puzzle. It’s magnetic field is almost exactly aligned with its rotation axis. Our theory of magnetic dynamos says this is something that can’t occur. So in the course of Cassini’s measurement of the magnetic field around Saturn, we’ll be addressing some fundamental questions about the nature of its magnetic field and how it arises and we’ll learn some lessons. I think those lessons will turn out to be useful in terms of understanding the magnetic field here at the Earth, a place where we still do not understand why the magnetic field flips from time to time.” Cassini’s camera systems, of course, will provide the most spectacular results for the lay person. Several hundred thousand images are expected to be beamed back to Earth with a maximum resolution of two kilometers per pixel when looking at Saturn’s rings, twice as good as images from the Voyager spacecraft. “Dynamically speaking, the ring system of Saturn shares a lot of common traits with systems as large as the spiral galaxies, which are trillions of times bigger,” Porco said at a pre-launch news conference. “So in addressing questions about ring systems we are actually asking questions that are truly universal in nature.” This picture of Saturn’s rings was taken by the Voyager 1 spacecraft in November 1980. Credit: NASA/JPLDespite the success of the Voyager encounters, “we are still left seeking an answer to probably the most fundamental question about Saturn’s rings,” she continued. “And that is, how did they get there and how long will they stick around? A system of rings like Saturn’s is really a collection of many, many separately orbiting particles that are always in motion and constantly changing. And for reasons we don’t really understand, they collect themselves into an enormous variety of features and structures. “Some of those features we think we do understand. They seem to be dynamically related to the satellites of Saturn, both satellites embedded within the rings and those external to the rings. And if our theories are correct, the dynamical interactions between the satellites and the rings should lead to discernible changes in the orbits of both ring particles and the satellites. “So a primary objective of the imaging system is going to be to refine the orbits of those satellites and actually search for the changes that have occurred between the Voyager epoch and Cassini’s arrival there. And with that, we should have a direct measurement of the rate at which the rings are evolving and extrapolating from that, a much better estimate for how long the rings have been around and even, perhaps, a prediction for how long they will stick around in the future.” Scientists believe the rings formed several hundred million years ago when one or more small moons broke apart in the grip of Saturn’s gravity. Another camp believes a stray Kuiper Belt Object wandered too close and was ripped to shreds. Mathematical analyses show the debris from such a wreck would quickly spread out in a vast, thin disk. Subsequent collisions and impacts ground the fragments into smaller and smaller pieces, giving birth to the rings first glimpsed by Galileo in the early 1600s. The Cassini spacecraft was named after the French astronomer Jean-Dominque Cassini, who discovered several of Saturn’s moons and the broad gap in its rings that is a famous target for amateur astronomers. The European Titan probe was named after Christiaan Huygens, a Dutch scientist who discovered the cloud-shrouded moon in 1655 and who developed the first accurate theory explaining the structure of Saturn’s rings. An artist’s concept shows Huygens parachuting to Titan after deployment from the Cassini orbiter. Credit: EADS AstriumThroughout its four-year orbital tour, Cassini will train its instruments on Titan to supplement what the Huygens probe discovers during its descent. “What makes it most interesting is the presence of methane, which makes up a few percent of the atmospheric composition,” said Jean-Pierre Lebreton, European Space Agency project scientist. “Sun rays, cosmic rays and certain energetic particles break the methane and the nitrogen, which leads to a complex photochemistry which produces complex organic molecules. When going to Titan, we are looking for answers to many questions. One is what complex organic molecules nature makes from these two simple gases, nitrogen and methane? And how complex are molecules today on Titan.” The Huygens/Titan probe is equipped with six science instruments:Descent Imager/Spectral RadiometerHuygens Atmospheric Structure InstrumentAerosol Collector and PyrolyzerGas Chromatograph/Mass SpectrometerDoppler Wind ExperimentSurface Science PackageHuygens will be released from Cassini on Christmas Eve. Spinning at 7 rpm for stability, the probe will slam into the atmosphere Jan. 14 at a speed of some 12,400 mph. When the velocity has dropped to about 870 mph, Huygens’ aft cover will be pulled away by a pilot chute and the spacecraft’s 27-foot-wide main parachute will deploy. The chute will be jettisoned 15 minutes after entry begins and from that point on, Huygens will ride beneath a smaller 9.8-foot-wide parachute. Impact on the surface at some 11 mph is expected about two-and-a-half hours after entry begins. Assuming the 705-pound Huygens doesn’t splash down in a hydrocarbon lake, “we have good confidence the probe will survive landing,” said Lebreton. “The landing speed is very low and there is a very good probability the probe will survive landing and we have capability to do measurements for half an hour on the surface. During the three-hour measurement phase, the probe will transmit its data to the overflying orbiter.” Huygens is shown landing on the surface of Titan in this illustration. Credit: ESAThe original flight plan called for Huygens to enter Titan’s atmosphere in late November as Cassini streaked overhead at an altitude of just 746 miles. But engineers were forced to delay Huygens’ arrival to January because of an issue with the radio aboard the Cassini mothership that will be used to relay data from Huygens to Earth. During a post-launch test, engineers discovered the radio receiver could not cope with the Doppler shift in the frequency of the signal coming from Huygens due to Cassini’s high relative velocity. Much like the pitch of a siren changes as a police car races past a stationary observer, the frequency of radio waves can shift a significant amount if relative velocities are high enough. “Originally, the closing speed of Cassini coming up on Huygens, which is for all practical purposes sitting still once it’s in the atmosphere, the closing speed was about 5.8 kilometers per second (13,000 mph),” Mitchell said in a recent interview. “And because we were coming in almost dead overhead and going off to the right at about 1,200 kilometers (746 miles) altitude.” The solution was to minimize the Doppler shift by reducing the relative velocities of the two spacecraft. That was accomplished by changing Cassini’s trajectory slightly and delaying Huygens’ release to Christmas Eve. During the Jan. 14 descent, Cassini now will be 37,300 miles from Titan and the difference in velocity between the two spacecraft will never be more than 8,500 mph. “We have pretty solid evidence that’s going to work,” Mitchell said. “We did some tests where we used the Deep Space Network stations transmitting an S-band signal with telemetry modulated onto the carrier so that from the receiver’s point of view on the Cassini spacecraft, it should have simulated the probe quite accurately. We adjusted the frequency, taking into account the motion of everything, so that the frequency of the received signal at the receiver should very closely if not exactly match the frequency that the receiver will see coming from Huygens.” This illustration shows Cassini receiving data from Huygens for relay to scientists on Earth. Credit: ESAThe tests were successful and a potentially crippling design flaw was resolved with no significant loss of science. Lunine can hardly wait. “We ought to be able to see a pretty good panorama of the area that the Huygens probe is going to land in,” he said in an interview, describing the descent. “Those pictures will continue all the way down to the surface, they’ll be interrupted right at the end when the camera switches over to take what are called spectra, which will tell us about the composition of the surface. So we ought to be able to get a pretty good panorama to start with. “We ought to be able to see whether the probe came down in an area that’s mostly craters or other kinds of land forms. We ought to be able to get a hint of whether there might be pools or lakes of liquid in that area. It won’t be immediately apparent whether dark places are liquid or solid, but depending on where the probe lands, we might get some direct information on that. And we might see clouds in the sky toward the horizon. “There may be some detection of lightning,” he said, “although there probably isn’t a lot of lightning in Titan’s atmosphere. And then after impact, or touchdown, if the antennas aren’t pointed in a strange direction, we should be able to get some information about the surface. If we’re lucky enough to land in liquid, then the probe should be bobbing up and down and there’s a tilt meter that will tell us that. And we might be able to get samples of surface material because the probe will still be warm and anything like these liquid hydrocarbons will vaporize and go up into the sample inlets.”MISSION PREVIEWStargaze II DVDThe Stargaze II DVD has arrived! It features over 65 minutes of all new videos of the universe with newly-composed dolby digital and DTS 5.1 Channel surround sound music. Choose your store: – – – Solar system poster This new poster is popular for classrooms and children’s bedrooms. It includes interesting facts and figures about the planets and their moons. Choose your store: – – – Apollo 15 DVD Relive on DVD the journey of Apollo 15, one of the great explorations of our time. This unique six-disc DVD set contains all the available television and 16mm film footage from the mission.Choose your store: – – – Shuttle patchesCollect the official mission patches for the first ten space shuttle flights and save off the regular price. Introducing the Space Shuttle Patch Collection.Choose your store: – – – | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Cassini captures Saturn moon red-handed CASSINI PHOTO RELEASEPosted: December 4, 2004Stealing is a crime on Earth, but at Saturn, apparently it is routine. The Cassini spacecraft has witnessed Saturn’s moon Prometheus snatching particles from one of Saturn’s rings. Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science InstituteDownload larger image version This potato-shaped moon is also believed to be responsible for kinks within Saturn’s thin F ring, a contorted, narrow ring flanked by two small moons, Prometheus and Pandora. The thievery and the detailed behavior of kinks were observed for the first time ever in images taken by the Cassini spacecraft.In an image taken on Oct. 29, Prometheus is seen stealing particles from the F ring while connected to the ringlets by a faint streak of material. A movie sequence of the ring, taken on Oct. 28, captures in freeze-frame motion the zigzagging kinks and knots, some of which are almost certainly caused by Prometheus.The kinks look like “hiccups” traveling around the ring. Consisting of 44 frames taken three minutes apart, the sequence represents almost two hours, or about one-eighth of the orbital period of F ring particles around the planet.Cassini was on a flight path that took the spacecraft away from the planet and farther south, so that the rings appear to tilt upward. The top portion of the F ring is closer to the spacecraft, while the bottom portion is farther away and curves around the far side of Saturn.Scientists are not sure exactly how Prometheus is interacting with the F ring here, but they have speculated that the moon might be gravitationally pulling material away from the ring. Scientists speculate that the ring particles may end up in a slightly different orbit from the one they were in prior to getting a ‘kick’ from the moon. These kicks occur at specific locations in the rings and can actually cause large waves or knots to form. In the still image, gaps in the diffuse inner strands are seen. All these features appear to be due to the influence of Prometheus in ways that are not fully understood.Saturn’s moon Prometheus is following in the footsteps of the legendary Titan for which it is named. In Greek mythology, Prometheus stole fire from the gods and gave it to the mortals.Scientists will use what they learn about Prometheus’ interaction with the F ring to understand the gravitational exchanges between moons and rings, which give rise to so much of the structure that is observed in Saturn’s rings. The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini-Huygens mission for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras were designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging team is based at the Space Science Institute, Boulder, Colo.Ares 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Expedition 21The official embroidered patch for the International Space Station Expedition 21 crew is now available from our stores.Hubble PatchThe official embroidered patch for mission STS-125, the space shuttle’s last planned service call to the Hubble Space Telescope, is available for purchase. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Cassini conducts major orbit adjustment maneuver CASSINI MISSION CONTROL REPORTPosted: August 23, 2004 The Cassini spacecraft successfully completed a 51-minute engine burn that will raise its next closest approach distance to Saturn by nearly 300,000 kilometers (186,000 miles). The maneuver was necessary to keep the spacecraft from passing through the rings and to put it on target for its first close encounter with Saturn’s moon Titan on Oct. 26. Mission controllers received confirmation of a successful burn at 11:15 a.m. Pacific Time today. The spacecraft is approaching the highest point in its first and largest orbit about Saturn. Its distance from the center of Saturn is about 9 million kilometers (5.6 million miles), and its speed just prior to today’s burn was 325 meters per second (727 miles per hour) relative to Saturn. That means it is nearly at a standstill compared to its speed of about 30,000 meters per second (67,000 miles per hour) at the completion of its orbit insertion burn on June 30.”Saturn orbit insertion got us into orbit and this maneuver sets us up for the tour,” said Joel Signorelli, spacecraft system engineer for the Cassini-Huygens mission at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.The maneuver was the third longest engine burn for the Cassini spacecraft and the last planned pressurized burn in the four-year tour. The Saturn obit insertion burn was 97 minutes long, and the deep space maneuver in Dec. 1998 was 88 minutes long. “The October 26 Titan encounter will be much closer than our last one. We’ll fly by Titan at an altitude of 1,200 kilometers (746 miles), ‘dipping our toe’ into its atmosphere,” said Signorelli. Cassini’s first Titan flyby on July 2 was from 340,000 kilometers (211,000 miles) away.Over the next four years, the Cassini orbiter will execute 45 Titan flybys as close as approximately 950 kilometers (590 miles) from the moon. In January 2005, the European-built Huygens probe that is attached to Cassini will descend through Titan’s atmosphere to the surface.The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini-Huygens mission for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate, Washington. JPL designed, developed and assembled the Cassini orbiter. Ares 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Expedition 21The official embroidered patch for the International Space Station Expedition 21 crew is now available from our stores.Hubble PatchThe official embroidered patch for mission STS-125, the space shuttle’s last planned service call to the Hubble Space Telescope, is available for purchase. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Cassini craft reveals Saturn’s cool rings CASSINI PHOTO RELEASEPosted: September 2, 2004 The Cassini spacecraft has taken the most detailed temperature measurements to date of Saturn’s rings. Data taken by the composite infrared spectrometer instrument on the spacecraft while entering Saturn’s orbit show the cool and relatively warm regions of the rings. Credit: NASA/JPL/University of ArizonaThis false-color image shows that the temperatures on the unlit side of Saturn’s rings vary from a relatively warm 110 Kelvin (-261 degrees Fahrenheit, shown in red), to a cool 70 Kelvin (-333 degrees Fahrenheit, shown in blue). The green represents a temperature of 90 Kelvin (-298 degrees Fahrenheit). Water freezes at 273 Kelvin (32 degrees Fahrenheit). The data show that the opaque region of the rings, like the outer A ring (on the far right) and the middle B ring, are cooler, while more transparent sections, like the Cassini Division (in red just inside the A ring) or the inner C ring (shown in yellow and red), are warmer. Scientists had predicted this might be the case, because the opaque ring areas would let less light through, and the transparent areas, more. These results also show, for the first time, that individual ringlets in the C ring and the Cassini Division are cooler than the surrounding, more transparent regions.The temperature data were taken on July 1, 2004, shortly after Saturn orbit insertion. Cassini is so close to the planet that no pictures of the unlit side of the rings are available, hence the temperature data was mapped onto a picture of the lit side of the rings. Saturn is overexposed and pure white in this picture. Saturn’s moon Enceladus is visible below the rings, toward the center.The composite infrared spectrometer, one of 12 instruments on Cassini, will measure infrared emissions from atmospheres, rings and surfaces. This spectrometer will create vertical profiles of temperature and gas composition for the atmospheres of Titan and Saturn. During Cassini’s four-year tour, the instrument will also gather information on the thermal properties and composition of Saturn’s rings and icy moons.?Cassini-Huygens is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini-Huygens mission for NASA’s Science and Mission Directorate, Washington. The Cassini orbiter was designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The Composite Infrared Spectrometer team is based at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.Ares 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Expedition 21The official embroidered patch for the International Space Station Expedition 21 crew is now available from our stores.Hubble PatchThe official embroidered patch for mission STS-125, the space shuttle’s last planned service call to the Hubble Space Telescope, is available for purchase. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Cassini discoveries shed light on Saturn and Titan NASA ANNOUNCEMENTPosted: August 5, 2004The Cassini spacecraft, which began its tour of the Saturn system just over a month ago, has detected lightning and a new radiation belt at Saturn, and a glow around the planet’s largest moon, Titan. The magnetospheric imaging instrument onboard Cassini recently discovered a new radiation belt just above Saturn’s cloud tops, up to the inner edge of the D-ring. Before this discovery, it was not anticipated that such a trapped ion population could be sustained inside the rings. Credit: NASA/JPL/APLThe spacecraft’s radio and plasma wave science instrument detected radio waves generated by lightning. “We are detecting the same crackle and pop one hears when listening to an AM radio broadcast during a thunderstorm,” said Dr. Bill Kurth, deputy principal investigator on the radio and plasma wave instrument, University of Iowa, Iowa City. “These storms are dramatically different than those observed 20 years ago.”Cassini finds radio bursts from this lightning are highly episodic. There are large variations in the occurrence of lightning from day to day, sometimes with little or no lightning, suggesting a number of different, possibly short-lived storms, at mid- to high latitudes. Voyager observed lightning from an extended storm system at low latitudes, which lasted for months and appeared highly regular from one day to the next. The difference in storm characteristics may be related to very different shadowing conditions in the 1980s than they are now. During the Voyager time period when lightning was first observed, the rings cast a very deep shadow near Saturn’s equator. As a result, the atmosphere in a narrow band was permanently in shadow — making it cold — and located right next to the hottest in Saturn’s atmosphere. Turbulence between the hot and cold regions could have led to long-lived storms. However, during Cassini’s approach and entry into Saturn’s orbit, it is summer in the southern hemisphere and the ring shadow is distributed widely over a large portion of the northern hemisphere. This causes the hottest and coldest regions to be far apart.A major finding of the magnetospheric imaging instrument is the discovery of a new radiation belt just above Saturn’s cloud tops, up to the inner edge of the D-ring. This is the first time that a new Saturnian radiation belt has been discovered with remote sensing. This new radiation belt extends around the planet. It was detected by the emission of fast neutral atoms created as its magnetically trapped ions interact with gas clouds located planetward of the D-ring. With this discovery, the radiation belts are shown to extend far closer to the planet than previously known. “This new radiation belt had eluded detection by any of the spacecraft that previously visited Saturn. With its discovery we have seen something that we did not expect, that radiation belt particles can ‘hop’ over obstructions like Saturn’s rings, without being absorbed by the rings in the process,” said Dr. Donald G. Mitchell, instrument scientist for the magnetospheric imaging instrument at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, Md.Saturn’s largest moon, Titan, is also shining for attention. Cassini’s visual and infrared mapping spectrometer captured Titan glowing both day and night, powered by emissions from methane and carbon monoxide gases in the moon’s extensive, thick atmosphere. The glow of Titan’s extensive atmosphere shines in false colors in this view of Saturn’s gas-enshrouded moon acquired by the Cassini spacecraft visual and infrared mapping spectrometer during the July 2, 2004, flyby. This image is a combination of near-infrared colors, each of which probes different phenomena in the moon. Credit: NASA/JPL/University of Arizona”Not only is Titan putting on a great light show but it is also teaching us more about its dense atmosphere,” said Dr. Kevin Baines, science team member for the visual and infrared mapping spectrometer at Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. “What is amazing is that the size of this glow or emission of gases is a sixth the diameter of the planet,” he added.The Sun-illuminated fluorescent glow of methane throughout Titan’s upper atmosphere — revealing the atmosphere’s immense thickness and extending more than 700 kilometers (435 miles) above the surface, was expected. However, the nighttime glow, persistently shining over the night side of Titan, initially surprised scientists. “These images are as if you were seeing Titan through alien eyes. Titan glows throughout the near-infrared spectrum. If you were an alien it would be hard to get a good night’s sleep on Titan because the light would always be on,” Baines said.The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. JPL manages the Cassini-Huygens mission for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate, Washington.Ares 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Expedition 21The official embroidered patch for the International Space Station Expedition 21 crew is now available from our stores.Hubble PatchThe official embroidered patch for mission STS-125, the space shuttle’s last planned service call to the Hubble Space Telescope, is available for purchase. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Cassini discovers ring and one, maybe two, objects CASSINI NEWS RELEASEPosted: September 9, 2004 Scientists examining Saturn’s contorted F ring, which has baffled them since its discovery, have found one small body, possibly two, orbiting in the F ring region, and a ring of material associated with Saturn’s moon Atlas. A new found ring of material, S/2004 1 R, in the orbit of Saturn’s moon Atlas has been seen in this view of the region between the edge of Saturn’s A ring and the F ring. Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science InstituteDownload larger image version A small object was discovered moving near the outside edge of the F ring, interior to the orbit of Saturn’s moon Pandora. The object was seen by Dr. Carl Murray, imaging team member at Queen Mary, University of London, in images taken on June 21, 2004, just days before Cassini arrived at Saturn. “I noticed this barely detectable object skirting the outer part of the F ring. It was an incredible privilege to be the first person to spot it,” he said. Murray’s group at Queen Mary then calculated an orbit for the object.Scientists cannot yet definitively say if the object is a moon or a temporary clump. If it is a moon, its diameter is estimated at four to five kilometers (two to three miles) and it is located 1,000 kilometers (620 miles) from the F ring, Saturn’s outmost ring. It is at a distance of approximately 141,000 kilometers (86,000 miles) from the center of Saturn and within 300 kilometers (190 miles) of the orbit of the moon Pandora. The object has been provisionally named S/2004 S3. Scientists are not sure if the object is alone. This is because of results from a search through other images that might capture the object to pin down its orbit. The search by Dr. Joseph Spitale, a planetary scientist working with team leader Dr. Carolyn Porco at the Space Science Institute in Boulder, Colo., revealed something strange. Spitale said, “When I went to look for additional images of this object to refine its orbit, I found that about five hours after first being sighted, it seemed to be orbiting interior to the F ring,” said Spitale. “If this is the same object then it has an orbit that crosses the F ring, which makes it a strange object.” Because of the puzzling dynamical implications of having a body that crosses the ring, the inner object sighted by Spitale is presently considered a separate object with the temporary designation S/2004 S 4. S4 is roughly the same size as S3. A small new found object, temporarily designated S/2004 S 3, has been seen orbiting Saturn’s outer F ring. The tiny object, seen centered in a green box, orbits the planet at a distance of approximately 141,000 kilometers (86,420 miles) from the center of Saturn. Its nature, moon or clump, is not presently known. Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science InstituteDownload larger image version In the process of examining the F ring region, Murray also detected a previously unknown ring, S/2004 1R, associated with Saturn’s moon, Atlas. “We knew from Voyager that the region between the main rings and the F ring is dusty, but the role of the moons in this region was a mystery,” said Murray. “It was while studying the F ring in these images that I discovered the faint ring of material. My immediate hunch was that it might be associated with the orbit of one of Saturn’s moons, and after some calculation I identified Atlas as the prime suspect.” The ring is located 138,000 kilometers (86,000 miles) from the center of Saturn in the orbit of the moon Atlas, between the A ring and the F ring. The width of the ring is estimated at 300 kilometers (190 miles). The ring was first spotted in images taken after orbit insertion on July 1, 2004. There is no way of knowing yet if it extends all the way around the planet.”We have planned many images to search the region between the A and F rings for diffuse material and new moons, which we have long expected to be there on the basis of the peculiar behavior of the F ring,” said Porco. “Now we have found something but, as is usual for the F ring, what we see is perplexing.”Searches will continue for further detections of the newfound body or bodies seen in association with the F ring. If the two objects indeed turn out to be a single moon, it will bring the Saturn moon count to 34. The newfound ring adds to the growing number of narrow ringlets around Saturn.The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini-Huygens mission for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate, Washington. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras were designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging team is based at the Space Science Institute, Boulder, Colo. UK scientists are playing significant roles in the mission with involvement in six of the 12 instruments onboard the Cassini orbiter and two of the six instruments on the Huygens probe.Ares 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Expedition 21The official embroidered patch for the International Space Station Expedition 21 crew is now available from our stores.Hubble PatchThe official embroidered patch for mission STS-125, the space shuttle’s last planned service call to the Hubble Space Telescope, is available for purchase. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Cassini diverts from collision course with moon Titan CASSINI MISSION STATUS REPORTPosted: December 28, 2004NASA’s Cassini spacecraft successfully performed a getaway maneuver on Monday, Dec. 27, to keep it from following the European Space Agency’s Huygens probe into the atmosphere of Saturn’s moon Titan. This maneuver established the required geometry between the probe and the orbiter for radio communications during the probe descent on Jan. 14. The probe has no navigating capability, so the Cassini orbiter had been placed on a deliberate collision course with Titan to ensure the accurate delivery of the probe to Titan. The Huygens probe successfully detached from the Cassini orbiter on Dec. 24. All systems performed as expected.The European Space Agency’s Huygens probe will be the first human-made object to explore on-site the unique environment of Titan, whose chemistry is thought to be very similar to that of early Earth before life arose. Next for Cassini is a flyby of Saturn’s icy moon Iapetus on Dec. 31. Iapetus is Saturn’s two-faced moon — one side is very bright, and the other is very dark. One scenario for this striking difference is that the moon’s surface is being resurfaced by some material spewing from within.The Cassini spacecraft has been in orbit around Saturn since June 30, 2004, and has returned stunning pictures of Saturn, its rings and many moons. Titan has already been the subject of two close flybys by Cassini. With 43 more flybys planned and the in-situ measurements made by the probe, it is likely only a matter of time before Titan’s secrets begin to unfold.The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini mission for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. JPL designed, developed and assembled the Cassini orbiter. The European Space Agency built and managed the development of the Huygens probe and is in charge of the probe operations. The Italian Space Agency provided the high-gain antenna, much of the radio system and elements of several of Cassini’s science instruments.Ares 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Expedition 21The official embroidered patch for the International Space Station Expedition 21 crew is now available from our stores.Hubble PatchThe official embroidered patch for mission STS-125, the space shuttle’s last planned service call to the Hubble Space Telescope, is available for purchase. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Cassini exposes Saturn’s two-face moon Iapetus CASSINI PHOTO RELEASEPosted: July 15, 2004The moon with the split personality, Iapetus, presents a perplexing appearance in the latest images snapped by the Cassini spacecraft. Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science InstituteDownload a larger image version One hemisphere of the moon is very dark, while the other is very bright. Scientists do not yet know the origin of the dark material or whether or not it is representative of the interior of Iapetus.Iapetus (pronounced eye-APP-eh-tuss) is one of Saturn’s 31 known moons. Its diameter is about one third that of our own moon at 1,436 kilometers (892 miles). This image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft narrow angle camera on July 3, 2004, from a distance of 3 million kilometers (1.8 million miles) from Iapetus. The brightness variations in this image are not due to shadowing, they are real.During Cassini’s four-year tour, the spacecraft will continue to image Iapetus and conduct two close encounters. One of those encounters, several years from now, will be at a mere 1,000 kilometers (622 miles).Iapetus was discovered by the Italian-French astronomer Jean Dominique Cassini in 1672. He correctly deduced that the trailing hemisphere is composed of highly reflective material, while the leading hemisphere is strikingly darker. This sets Iapetus apart from Saturn’s other moons and Jupiter’s moons, which tend to be brighter on their leading hemispheres. Voyager images show that the bright side of Iapetus, which reflects nearly 50 percent of the light it receives, is fairly typical of a heavily cratered icy satellite. The leading side consists of much darker, redder material that has a reflectivity of only about 3 to 4 percent. One scenario for the outside deposit of material has dark particles being ejected from Saturn’s little moon Phoebe and drifting inward to coat Iapetus. One observation lending credence to an internal origin is the concentration of material on crater floors, which is suggestive of something filling in the craters. Iapetus is odd in other respects. It is in a moderately inclined orbit, one that takes it far above and below the plane in which the rings and most of the moons orbit. It is less dense than many of the other satellites, which suggests a higher fraction of ice or possibly methane or ammonia in its interior.The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini-Huygens mission for NASA’s Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras were designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging team is based at the Space Science Institute, Boulder, Colo.Ares 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Expedition 21The official embroidered patch for the International Space Station Expedition 21 crew is now available from our stores.Hubble PatchThe official embroidered patch for mission STS-125, the space shuttle’s last planned service call to the Hubble Space Telescope, is available for purchase. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Cassini eyes the culprit CASSINI PHOTO RELEASEPosted: October 11, 2004 Gazing beyond Saturn’s magnificent rings, Cassini spotted the cause of the dark gap visible in the foreground of this image: Mimas, which is 398 kilometers (247 miles) wide. The gravitational influence of Mimas is responsible for the 4,800 kilometer- (2,980 mile-) wide Cassini division, which stretches across the lower left portion of this view. The little moon is at a nearly half-full phase in this view. Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science InstituteDownload larger image version A small clump of material is visible in the narrow F ring, beyond the edge of the main rings. The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft narrow angle camera at a distance of 8.9 million kilometers (5.5 million miles) from Mimas and at a Sun-Mimas-spacecraft, or phase, angle of 88 degrees. The image scale is 54 kilometers (34 miles) per pixel. The image was magnified by a factor of four to aid visibility. The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini-Huygens mission for NASA’s Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras, were designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging team is based at the Space Science Institute, Boulder, Colo. Ares 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Expedition 21The official embroidered patch for the International Space Station Expedition 21 crew is now available from our stores.Hubble PatchThe official embroidered patch for mission STS-125, the space shuttle’s last planned service call to the Hubble Space Telescope, is available for purchase. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Cassini finds evidence for water on Enceladus BY WILLIAM HARWOOD

    September 20th, 2014 at 11:18 pm (#)

  541. Chaquetas de piel de las Mujer says:

    Margherita

    September 20th, 2014 at 11:18 pm (#)

  542. New Arrivals UGGS says:

    Posted: March 17, 2005The shutdown of an orientation control gyroscope aboard the internationalspace station will not impact the planned launch of the shuttle Discovery inMay, officials said today, even though only two of the lab’s four gyros willbe operating when the orbiter arrives.Station program manager Bill Gerstenmaier also said the loss of controlmoment gyroscope No. 2 early Wednesday would not prevent Discovery’s crewfrom making worst-case repairs to the orbiter after docking if the ship’sheat shield tiles or wing leading edge panels were damaged during launch.If such repairs were actually needed, the shuttle might have to bere-oriented using the ship’s robot arm to give spacewalking repairmen accessto hard-to-reach areas. While that would be more difficult with just twooperational gyros, Gerstenmaier said station stability could be maintainedusing Russian rocket thrusters instead.And in any case, a new CMG will be installed during Discovery’s visit toreplace one that failed in 2002, once again giving the station threeoperational gyros. When CMG-2′s faulty circuit breaker eventually isreplaced, the lab complex will once again have four operational CMGs.Gerstenmaier said flight planners are studying the timelines for thethree shuttle spacewalks to determine if it might be possible for Discoveryastronauts Stephen Robinson and Soichi Noguchi to install a fresh remotepower control module during one of their excursions.Mike Fincke, who spent six months aboard the station last year, installedthe unit that failed Wednesday during a spacewalk last summer. He said todayit would probably take Robinson and Noguchi about an hour to complete theswap out if time was available.But the Discovery spacewalk timelines already are tight, training time isshort and it appears more likely the space station’s crew will be asked toreplace the unit during a spacewalk after Discovery departs.Gerstenmaier said the power control module has 17 channels and that asuspect transitor believed to be susceptible to failures in identicaldevices used throughout the station apparently caused the gyro circuit totrip open Wednesday. An identical failure knocked CMG-2 off line last year,requiring Fincke and Expedition 9 commander Gennady Padalka to replace theunit.Gerstenmaier said engineers are developing a new design to eliminate thetransistor problem and that in the meantime, he viewed the most recentfailure as a relatively minor glitch.Overall, he said, the space station is in good shape for Discovery’sreturn to flight in mid May. Over the past few days, engineers have beentroubleshooting recurring problems with the station’s Russian Elektronoxygen generator. But Gerstenmaier said even if the unit failed today andcould not be restarted, enough stored air is available to supportDiscovery’s launching and to support both crews in a “safe haven” mode ifshuttle damage forced NASA to launch a rescue mission.As of today, with the Elektron in operation, the station has enough airto support both crews for at least 45 days, which NASA says is long enoughto get another shuttle to the station in an emergency. A total Elektronfailure in the immediate future would cut into those reserves, butGerstenmaier said enough would be available for safe haven.Telescopes.comLargest selection and the best prices anywhere in the world. Free shipping on select items. is the largest dealer of both Meade and Celestron Telescopes. Visit or call toll free 1-800-303-5873.Columbia ReportA reproduction of the official accident investigation report into the loss of the space shuttle Columbia and its crew of seven. Choose your store: – – – Apollo 12 tribute DVD setNew!Featuring the jovial crew of Pete Conrad, Dick Gordon and Alan Bean, the Apollo 12 mission was struck by lightning shortly after liftoff but proceeded on the second successful exploration voyage to the lunar surface. This three-disc DVD brings the mission to life with extraordinary detail.Choose your store: – – – Fallen Heroes special patchThis special 12-inch embroidered patch commemorates the U.S. astronauts who made the ultimate sacrifice, honoring the crews of Apollo 1, Challenger and Columbia.Choose your store: – – – Women in SpaceWomen of Space: Cool Careers on the Final Frontier is for girls, young women, and anyone else interested in learning about exciting careers in space exploration. Includes CD-ROM.Choose your store: – – – Mars rover posterThis new poster features some of the best pictures from NASA’s amazing Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity.Choose your store:Apollo patchesThe Apollo Patch Collection: Includes all 12 Apollo mission patches plus the Apollo Program Patch. Save over 20% off the Individual price.Choose your store: – – – | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Station spacewalk begins BY WILLIAM HARWOOD

    September 20th, 2014 at 11:18 pm (#)

  543. UGG Ultra Alto botas 5245 says:

    Does North Korea want to bury the hatchet with the U.S.?

    September 20th, 2014 at 11:18 pm (#)

  544. Anonymous says:

    ROCSAT 2 undergoes pre-launch activities. Credit: NSPOOnce maneuvered into its operational orbit 550 miles above the planet, ROCSAT 2 will will snap pictures for environmental monitoring and use an onboard instrument to study upper atmospheric lightning, called red sprites.”The land images could be used to monitor the environment and resources throughout Taiwan, the offshore remote islands, Taiwan Strait and its surrounding ocean,” according to the Taiwanese space agency.Uses of the ROCSAT 2 imagery include agriculture projections of crop yields, land usage studies for economic growth, detecting oil spills off the Taiwanese shore and environmental research. Observations following natural disasters is another role the satellite will fulfill. “Taiwan has frequently endured natural disasters caused by typhoons during summer and fall. In the aftermath, Taiwan crucially needs timely remote sensing data for damage assessment,” the program says.”The satellite images will be very valuable for assessing damages, possibly within one day if weather allows. The extent and condition of flood-submerged crop fields can be appraised. The extent of mud slides and the structural integrity of hillsides can be assessed as well.” An artist’s concept shows ROCSAT 2 orbiting Earth. Credit: NSPOThe lightning investigation aims to gather clues about electrodynamic relationship between thunderclouds and the upper atmosphere. ROCSAT 2 is expected to determine the location, time and characteristics “red sprite” lightning events.The satellite has a five-year life expectancy.For Taurus, the rocket’s future launch schedule is sparse. Two launches for NASA are scheduled in August and December 2007 from Vandenberg carrying the Orbiting Carbon Observatory and GLORY satellites.With three years until the next firm mission, Orbital is hoping to snare additional business.”There absolutely are other opportunities out there,” Wrobel said.The company played host to potential customers during this latest Taurus flight.”We actually have a number of other people that are up watching this mission just to see how it goes. We’ve had some other folks that have come by and watched some of the final processing that we did just to see from their perspective how it would flow into what their requirements might be.”There’s definitely people looking.”Ferryflight Shuttle PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!”The Final Mission” – NASA emblem developed for the Shuttle Carrier Aircraft crew and their support teams to deliver the orbiters to their final destinations at museums.Gemini 7Gemini 7: The NASA Mission Reports covers this 14-day mission by Borman and Lovell as they demonstrated some of the more essential facts of space flight. Includes CD-ROM.Choose your store: – – – Apollo patchesThe Apollo Patch Collection: Includes all 12 Apollo mission patches plus the Apollo Program Patch. Save over 20% off the Individual price.Choose your store: – – – Mars Rover mission patchA mission patch featuring NASA’s Mars Exploration Rover is available from our online.Choose your store: – – – Apollo 9 DVDOn the road to the moon, the mission of Apollo 9 stands as an important gateway in experience and procedures. This 2-DVD collection presents the crucial mission on the voyage to the moon. Choose your store: – – – Columbia ReportA reproduction of the official accident investigation report into the loss of the space shuttle Columbia and its crew of seven. Choose your store: – – – Mars PanoramaDISCOUNTED! This 360 degree image was taken by the Mars Pathfinder, which landed on the Red Planet in July 1997. The Sojourner Rover is visible in the image. Choose your store:Apollo 11 Mission ReportApollo 11 – The NASA Mission Reports Vol. 3 is the first comprehensive study of man’s first mission to another world is revealed in all of its startling complexity. Includes DVD!Choose your store: – – – Rocket DVDIf you’ve ever watched a launch from Kennedy Space Center, Cape Canaveral, Vandenberg Air Force Base or even Kodiak Island Alaska, there’s no better way to describe what you witnessed than with this DVD.Choose your store: – – – An insider’s view of how Apollo flight controllers operated and just what they faced when events were crucial. Choose your store: Final Shuttle Mission PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The crew emblem for the final space shuttle mission is now available in our store. Get this piece of history!STS-134 PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The final planned flight of space shuttle Endeavour is symbolized in the official embroidered crew patch for STS-134. Available in our store!Ares 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Project OrionThe Orion crew exploration vehicle is NASA’s first new human spacecraft developed since the space shuttle a quarter-century earlier. The capsule is one of the key elements of returning astronauts to the Moon.Fallen Heroes Patch CollectionThe official patches from Apollo 1, the shuttle Challenger and Columbia crews are available in the store. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Telecom satellite lost after Proton launch failure SPACEFLIGHT NOWPosted: May 15, 2014 An advanced Russian communications satellite was destroyed Thursday when its Proton rocket booster failed minutes after liftoff from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. The Proton rocket blasts off at 3:42 a.m. local time Friday (2142 GMT; 5:42 p.m. EDT Thursday) from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. Credit: TsENKI TV/Spaceflight NowThe Express AM4R spacecraft, worth approximately $200 million, was supposed to begin a 15-year mission beaming radio, television, broadband Internet and telephone services across Russia and neighboring countries.But a few minutes after the 12,720-pound (5,770-kilogram) Express AM4R satellite launched from Baikonur, Russia’s primary space base, its Proton rocket ran into a problem.The failure occurred during the third stage of the Proton’s ascent into orbit, according to a statement by the Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center, the Moscow-based manufacturer of the Proton launcher.An announcer declared an emergency during a live webcast of the launch, and Khrunichev’s statement also described the incident as an “emergency situation.”Khrunichev said experts were analyzing telemetry to determine the cause of the failure.A report by Interfax said debris from the rocket may have fallen the Altai or Amur regions of Russia’s Far East.Spewing a brilliant flame of blue exhaust, the 19-story Proton rocket lifted off at 2142 GMT (5:42 p.m. EDT) to start a nine-hour flight to deploy the powerful European-built Express AM4R telecommunications satellite for Russian government and commercial customers.The launch was at 3:42 a.m. local time at Baikonur.The hydrazine-fueled rocket disappeared from the view of a ground-based tracking camera a few minutes later, with no visible signs of any trouble.But a problem occurred about 545 seconds, or about 9 minutes, after liftoff, according to a report by the semi-official Itar-Tass news agency.Another report by the Interfax media service said the time of the failure was about 500 seconds after launch.Both of the times reported for the anomaly occurred during the firing of the Proton rocket’s third stage, which is powered by an RD-0213 main engine generating 131,000 pounds of thrust. A four-nozzle vernier steering engine is also mounted on the third stage to keep the rocket pointed in the right direction. Artist’s concept of the Express AM4R satellite. Credit: Airbus Defence and SpaceThe rocket’s guidance, navigation and control system is a triple-redundant digital avionics package on the third stage.Thursday’s mishap marks the fifth launch failure of the Proton rocket or its Breeze M upper stage in 36 flights since December 2010. Another Proton/Breeze M mission put the Russian Yamal 402 communications satellite in the wrong orbit, but the spacecraft was able to boot itself to the correct location.The string of mishaps has brought focus on the quality control procedures of Khrunichev and its suppliers, with the Russian space contrator announcing expanded inspections, video monitoring in its factories and other measures to bolster the Proton’s reliability.Thursday’s launch was the 397th Proton mission since 1965. Overall, the rocket has a success record matching the world’s leading satellite launchers.Officials said Proton rockets would likely be grounded until investigators find the cause of Thursday’s failure and issue corrective recommendations. After a Proton rocket veered out of control moments after a launch in July 2013, an inquiry found technicians installed accelerometers in the rocket upside down, resulting in a two-month grounding of the Proton vehicle.International Launch Services, a Virginia-based firm owned by Khrunichev, manages commercial Proton rocket missions. Thursday’s flight was conducted under the auspices of Khrunichev as part of Russia’s federal space program.The five Proton or Breeze M launch failures since December 2010 have all been on Russian federal missions. Only the partial launch failure on the Yamal 402 mission was on an ILS flight.ILS officials say they offer additional mission assurance services on Proton launches under their responsibility. The ILS Proton is one of the three leading rockets in the international launch market, alongside the European Ariane 5 and SpaceX’s Falcon 9.Built by Airbus Defence and Space, the Express AM4R spacecraft was supposed to cover Russia and neighboring countries with four communications bands and 10 antennas, supplying users with television, broadband Internet, telephone and mobile services.Express AM4R was owned by the Russian Satellite Communications Co., a state-owned operator that serves a mix of government and commercial users. The Express AM4R spacecraft is removed from its shipping container to begin launch preparations at Baikonur. Credit: KhrunichevThe Proton rocket’s Breeze M upper stage was programmed to take over control of the mission about 11 minutes after liftoff with a series of five engine burns to put the Express AM4R satellite into a high-altitude geostationary transfer orbit, a waypoint on the way to the craft’s final operating position 22,300 miles over the equator.But the core three-stage Proton booster, which was designed to propel the Breeze M and its payload on a suborbital trajectory, was unable to complete its job.Express AM4R was ordered by RSCC from Airbus, then known as Astrium Satellites, in 2012 to replace a satellite lost on a previous Proton/Breeze M failure.The spacecraft was to be positioned in geostationary orbit at 80 degrees east longitude.Described by RSCC as Russia’s most powerful communications satellite, it was based on the Eurostar E3000 platform built by Airbus.The satellite carried 63 transponders in C-band, Ku-band, Ka-band and L-band.The launch of Express AM4R was part of a strategic expansion by RSCC, which said it planned eight satellite launches from 2013 to 2015, doubling the company’s communications capacity.Follow Stephen Clark on Twitter: .John Glenn Mission PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The historic first orbital flight by an American is marked by this commemorative patch for John Glenn and Friendship 7.Final Shuttle Mission PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The crew emblem for the final space shuttle mission is available in our store. Get this piece of history!Celebrate the shuttle programFree shipping to U.S. addresses!This special commemorative patch marks the retirement of NASA’s Space Shuttle Program. Available in our store!Anniversary Shuttle PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!This embroidered patch commemorates the 30th anniversary of the Space Shuttle Program. The design features the space shuttle Columbia’s historic maiden flight of April 12, 1981.Mercury anniversaryFree shipping to U.S. addresses!Celebrate the 50th anniversary of Alan Shephard’s historic Mercury mission with this collectors’ item, the official commemorative embroidered patch.Fallen Heroes Patch CollectionThe official patches from Apollo 1, the shuttle Challenger and Columbia crews are available in the store. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.The Eventual Eleven: Meet NASA’s astronaut class of ’04Posted: May 9, 2004They are the faces of the next era of U.S. space exploration. Selected by NASA as the 2004 class of astronaut candidates, these nine men and two women will wait years before getting the opportunity to fly into space. But their work will help prepare for humankind’s return to the moon and push to Mars.”These are the astronauts who will lead us through the next steps in the new exploration vision,” said NASA Administrator Sean O’Keefe.”The class is made up of pilots and engineers who will help us develop the next generation vehicle, scientists who will do research to help humans live and travel in space and three new educator astronauts to help ensure a new generation is ready for the challenges of exploration.”Spaceflight Now Plus subscribers can watch interviews with 10 of the candidates. The 11th member of the class, Randy Bresnik, was unavailable.Find out how to get your . The 2004 astronaut class Joseph AcabaAn interview with Mission Specialist-Educator Joseph Acaba. (2min 54sec file)Richard ArnoldAn interview with Mission Specialist-Educator Richard Arnold. (2min 51sec file) Christopher CassidyAn interview with Mission Specialist Christopher Cassidy. (2min 37sec file)James DuttonAn interview with Pilot James Dutton. (2min 42sec file) Jose HernandezAn interview with Mission Specialist Jose Hernandez. (3min 16sec file)Shane KimbroughAn interview with Mission Specialist Shane Kimbrough. (3min 39sec file) Thomas MarshburnAn interview with Mission Specialist Thomas Marshburn. (3min 23sec file)Dorothy Metcalf-LindenburgerAn interview with Mission Specialist-Educator Dorothy Metcalf-Lindenburger. (4min 21sec file) Robert SatcherAn interview with Mission Specialist Robert Satcher. (6min 35sec file)Shannon WalkerAn interview with Mission Specialist Shannon Walker. (2min 23sec file) The new astronaut candidates:Mission Specialist-Educator Joseph Acaba, 36, of Dunnellon, Fla.; math and science teacher at Dunnellon Middle School; born in Inglewood, Ca. Acaba has degrees from the University of California at Santa Barbara and the University of Arizona. He is a former Peace Corps volunteer in the Dominican Republic and also managed a research station in the Bahamas.Mission Specialist-Educator Richard Arnold, 40, of Berlin, Md.; currently lives in Bucharest, Romania; math and science teacher at the American International School of Bucharest; born in Cheverly, Md. and raised in Bowie, Md. Arnold has degrees from Frostburg State University, Md., and the University of Maryland. Arnold has also taught in Morocco, Indonesia, and Saudi Arabia.Pilot Randolph Bresnik, Major, U.S. Marine Corps, 36, an F/A-18 pilot and experimental test pilot based in San Diego, Calif.; born in Fort Knox, Ky. Bresnik has degrees from The Citadel, S.C., and the University of Tennessee at Knoxville. He is getting married this month in a Scottish castle.Mission Specialist Christopher Cassidy, Lt. Cmdr., U.S. Navy, 34; Navy SEAL based in Norfolk, Va.; born in Salem, Mass.; raised in York, Maine. He has degrees from the U.S. Naval Academy and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Mass. Cassidy completed two tours of duty in Afghanistan and earned a Bronze Star.Pilot James Dutton, Major, U.S. Air Force, 35; an F/A-22 test pilot stationed in Edwards, Calif.; born and raised in Eugene, Ore. Dutton has degrees from the U.S. Air Force Academy and the University of Washington. During the 1990s, Dutton flew combat air patrols over northern Iraq.Mission Specialist Jose Hernandez, 41, of Houston; engineer and branch chief at NASA’s Johnson Space Center (JSC); born in French Camp, Calif.; grew up as a migrant farm worker before settling in Stockton, Calif. Hernandez has degrees from the University of the Pacific and the University of California at Santa Barbara. His work at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in the 1990s contributed to a new tool for early breast cancer detection.Mission Specialist R. Shane Kimbrough, 36, Major, U.S. Army, of Houston; flight simulation engineer at JSC; born in Killeen, Tex.; considers Atlanta his hometown. Kimbrough has degrees from the U.S. Military Academy (USMA) and the Georgia Institute of Technology. Kimbrough was captain of the baseball team at USMA. He served as a platoon leader in an Apache attack helicopter company during Desert Storm.Mission Specialist Thomas Marshburn, M.D., 43, of Houston; flight surgeon at JSC; born in Statesville, N.C.; raised in Atlanta. He has degrees from Davidson College, N.C.; the University of Virginia; Wake Forest University, N.C.; and the University of Texas Medical Branch. Marshburn is an avid mountain climber and has a private pilot’s license.Mission Specialist-Educator Dorothy Metcalf-Lindenburger, 28, of Vancouver, Wash.; science teacher at Hudson’s Bay High School; born in Colorado Springs, Co. and raised in Fort Collins, Co. Metcalf-Lindenburger graduated from Whitman College, Wash. She is a cross-country coach and marathon runner. She was a champion runner in college.Mission Specialist Robert Satcher, M.D., Ph.D., 38, of Oak Park, Ill.; orthopedic surgeon at Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Chicago; raised in Hampton, Va. Satcher has degrees from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and from Harvard University. He performs research in muscular-skeletal oncology and has done charity medical work overseas.Mission Specialist Shannon Walker, Ph.D., 38, of Houston; a manager at JSC overseeing the technical health of the International Space Station; born and raised in Houston. Walker has three degrees from Rice University. She has lived in worked in Russia, supporting the Space Station program. She is an avid private pilot.”With the new exploration vision, human space flight is really moving into its next era,” said NASA Associate Administrator for Space Flight William Readdy. “Members of this class have terrific experience behind them already, and we’re thrilled to have their smarts and skills to help us move forward,” he said. “We are especially excited to welcome our three new educator astronauts,” said NASA Associate Administrator for Education, Dr. Adena Loston. “They will help inspire a new generation of explorers.” Mars rover collectible patchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!This commemorative patch celebrates NASA’s Curiosity rover mission of the Mars Science Laboratory in search of clues whether the Red Planet was once hospitable to life.Soviet SpaceFor the first time ever available in the West. Rocket & Space Corporation Energia: a complete pictorial history of the Soviet/Russian Space Program from 1946 to the present day all in full color. Available from our store.Choose your store: – – – Viking patchThis embroidered mission patch celebrates NASA’s Viking Project which reached the Red Planet in 1976.Choose your store: – – – Apollo 7 DVDFor 11 days the crew of Apollo 7 fought colds while they put the Apollo spacecraft through a workout, establishing confidence in the machine what would lead directly to the bold decision to send Apollo 8 to the moon just 2 months later. Choose your store: – – – Gemini 12Gemini 12: The NASA Mission Reports covers the voyage of James Lovell and Buzz Aldrin that capped the Gemini program’s efforts to prove the technologies and techniques that would be needed for the Apollo Moon landings. Includes CD-ROM.Choose your store: – – – Apollo 11 special patchSpecial collectors’ patch marking the 35th anniversary of the historic Apollo 11 moon landing is now available.Choose your store: – – – Inside Apollo mission controlAn insider’s view of how Apollo flight controllers operated and just what they faced when events were crucial. Choose your store: The ultimate Apollo 11 DVD This exceptional chronicle of the historic Apollo 11 lunar landing mission features new digital transfers of film and television coverage unmatched by any other.Choose your store: – – – Next ISS crewOwn a little piece of history with this official patch for the International Space Station’s Expedition 11 crew. We’ll ship yours today!Choose your store: Columbia ReportThe official accident investigation report into the loss of the space shuttle Columbia and its crew of seven. Includes CD-ROM. Choose your store:Final Shuttle Mission PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The crew emblem for the final space shuttle mission is now available in our store. Get this piece of history!STS-134 PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The final planned flight of space shuttle Endeavour is symbolized in the official embroidered crew patch for STS-134. Available in our store!Ares 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Project OrionThe Orion crew exploration vehicle is NASA’s first new human spacecraft developed since the space shuttle a quarter-century earlier. The capsule is one of the key elements of returning astronauts to the Moon.Fallen Heroes Patch CollectionThe official patches from Apollo 1, the shuttle Challenger and Columbia crews are available in the store. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Three satellites rocket into orbit to link Russian forces SPACEFLIGHT NOWPosted: May 24, 2014 Russia put a trio of military communications satellites into orbit Friday aboard a Rockot launch vehicle, a decommissioned ballistic missile modified for space launches. The Rockot launcher takes off from the Plesetsk Cosmodrome on Friday. Credit: TV ZvezdaThe satellites lifted off from the Plesetsk Cosmodrome at 0527 GMT (1:27 a.m. EDT; 9:27 a.m. Moscow time) Friday. The Rockot’s Breeze KM upper stage engine delivered the three spacecraft to orbit more than 900 miles above Earth less than two hours later, according to the Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center, the launch vehicle’s prime contractor.”The liftoff proceeded nominally,” Khrunichev said in a press release. “The subsequent phases of payload injection into the target orbit were implemented by means of the Breeze KM upper stage. The satellites separated from the upper stage on Friday, May 23, at the predicted times.”The satellites are part of the Russian military’s Rodnik, or Strela 3M, system designed to relay messages between users posted in remote locations. The spacecraft will likely receive the designations Kosmos 2496, 2497 and 2498 under the Russian military’s naming scheme for defense-related satellites.Satellite tracking data indicated a fourth payload was also released into space. Its identity and purpose was not acknowledged by Russian officials.Friday’s flight was the 21st launch of a Rockot vehicle with a Breeze KM upper stage since May 2000.The Rockot is a modified liquid-fueled two-stage missile built to deliver nuclear payloads to distant targets. Engineers converted the wartime weapon, known to Western observers as the SS-19, to a space launcher by adding a third stage to inject satellites into orbit.The mission was the 29th space launch to reach orbit this year, and the 11th Russian launch, including the failed flight of a Proton rocket earlier this month.Follow Stephen Clark on Twitter: .Final Shuttle Mission PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The crew emblem for the final space shuttle mission is now available in our store. Get this piece of history!STS-134 PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The final planned flight of space shuttle Endeavour is symbolized in the official embroidered crew patch for STS-134. Available in our store!Ares 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Project OrionThe Orion crew exploration vehicle is NASA’s first new human spacecraft developed since the space shuttle a quarter-century earlier. The capsule is one of the key elements of returning astronauts to the Moon.Fallen Heroes Patch CollectionThe official patches from Apollo 1, the shuttle Challenger and Columbia crews are available in the store. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Time is running out for tiny crowd-funded space mission SPACEFLIGHT NOWPosted: May 5, 2014 An experimental space mission launched last month has hit trouble, and the project’s team is worried the crowd-funded spacecraft will burn up in Earth’s atmosphere before releasing a swarm of tiny satellites the size of poker chips. Artist’s concept of KickSat deploying 104 tiny sprites, each a fully-functioning satellite. Credit: KickSat projectConceived by students at Cornell University, the KickSat project was funded by 315 backers through the online Kickstarter crowd-funding platform.The KickSat satellite, itself no bigger than a desktop toaster oven, was supposed to spring-eject 104 printed circuit boards May 4 on the command of an automatic timer.But the daughter satellites, dubbed sprites, never deployed from KickSat. Cornell graduate student Zac Manchester, who leads the project, wrote in a blog posting that KickSat’s microcontroller reset April 30, likely due to a high dose of radiation.The “hard reset” caused KickSat’s master clock to restart its 16-day countdown before issuing the order to release the sprites. The timer first initialized when KickSat separated from its Falcon 9 launcher April 18.Engineers incorporated the 16-day timer to ensure the sprites would not endanger the International Space Station and other satellites.After the microcontroller reset, deployment of the handmade sprites is now expected May 16, assuming KickSat is still in orbit.Using data supplied by the U.S. Air Force, which tracks all objects in orbit bigger than a baseball, KickSat volunteers predicted Monday that KickSat would re-enter Earth’s atmosphere May 14, with an error of plus-or-minus three days.KickSat’s drag coefficient coupled with its low altitude limits its lifetime in orbit. KickSat is based on the CubeSat platform, a standardized small satellite form factor used by universities, commercial companies and government agencies to reduce the cost of space missions.”We’ve spent the last couple of days here at Cornell trying to think of every possible contingency, but it seems there aren’t very many options right now,” Manchester wrote May 3 on KickSat’s Kickstarter page. “KickSat’s uplink radio, which we could use to command the deployment, can’t turn on unless the batteries reach 8 volts, and it doesn’t look like they’ll reach that level in time.”KickSat was designed to keep its main flight computer, based on a smart phone, switched off when power levels in the batteries drain below a certain level. “While the situation looks a little bleak, there is still some hope that the batteries may recharge sufficiently to command the satellite,” Manchester wrote. “There is also a small chance that KickSat could remain in orbit until the 16th, at which point the timer would set off the deployment as originally planned.” The tiny “sprites” carried aboard the Cornell University KickSat satellite measure just 3.5 x 3.5 centimeters. Credit: Zac Manchester/KickSat projectA dispersed network of volunteers is tracking KickSat and sharing data received from the satellite on a Google mailing list.”Thank you again for your support,” Manchester wrote to KickSat’s financial backers. “I promise that this won’t be the end of the KickSat project.”KickSat is not the first crowd-funded satellite, but the CubeSat’s 104 subsatellites were supposed to set a record in miniaturization, becoming the smallest spacecraft ever put into orbit.Each sprite is a nearly flat 3.5-centimeter (1.4-inch) square just 3 millimeters thick.”They weigh about 5 grams, and they have solar cells, a microcontroller, a radio transceiver and a couple of different sensors,” Manchester said in an interview before KickSat’s launch. “On different ones we have three-axis gyroscopes, three-axis magnetometers, various temperature sensors and stuff like that.”With the help of NASA’s Ames Research Center, Manchester and a small cadre of helpers modified off-the-shelf printed circuit boards for the hazards of spaceflight.Kickstarter contributors who pledged more than $1,000 to the KiskSat project could customize one of the sprites.KickSat’s backers provided more than $74,000 to pay for the construction of KickSat and the sprites.NASA supplied KickSat’s launch at no charge to Cornell or the Kickstarter backers through the space agency’s CubeSat launch initiative, which offers flight opportunities to educational institutions.Follow Stephen Clark on Twitter: .Final Shuttle Mission PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The crew emblem for the final space shuttle mission is now available in our store. Get this piece of history!STS-134 PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The final planned flight of space shuttle Endeavour is symbolized in the official embroidered crew patch for STS-134. Available in our store!Ares 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Project OrionThe Orion crew exploration vehicle is NASA’s first new human spacecraft developed since the space shuttle a quarter-century earlier. The capsule is one of the key elements of returning astronauts to the Moon.Fallen Heroes Patch CollectionThe official patches from Apollo 1, the shuttle Challenger and Columbia crews are available in the store. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Top general says reliability trumps rocket costs SPACEFLIGHT NOWPosted: May 20, 2014 COLORADO SPRINGS, Colo. — The head of U.S. Air Force Space Command pushed back Tuesday against accusations the service was excluding SpaceX from competing for lucrative military satellite launches, saying the Air Force was committing $60 million and scores of engineers to certify the commercial rocket company to put critical and costly national security payloads into orbit. File photo of Gen. William Shelton. Credit: Space Foundation”When you’re spending $60 million and putting 100 people against the problem to get somebody certified, it’s hard to say you’re excluding them,” said Gen. William Shelton, commander of Air Force Space Command. “They cannot compete — will not compete — until they are certified.”Shelton said SpaceX has completed enough launches to achieve certification, but the Air Force has so far only deemed one of the launches will count toward the three-launch requirement agreed to by the Defense Department and SpaceX last year.The certification document signed by the Air Force and SpaceX calls for three successful launches of the upgraded Falcon 9 v1.1 rocket. The first flight launched Sept. 29 from Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif., followed by two more launches from Cape Canaveral, Fla., in December and January.”The next two launches, we’re still working our way through. Behind that is a process analysis to make sure that your manufacturing processes are right, to make sure that your engineering processes are right, to make sure you’ve got an auditable financial system,” Shelton said Tuesday. “All those kinds of things have to come together to certify a provider.”SpaceX has filed suit in the U.S. Court of Federal Claims seeking to overturn the Pentagon’s sole-source award of 28 space launches to United Launch Alliance, a company jointly owned by Boeing and Lockheed Martin, which operates the Atlas 5 and Delta 4 rocket fleets.The Atlas 5 and Delta 4 were developed in the 1990s under the Air Force’s Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle program. SpaceX is now trying to break into the EELV market with the Falcon 9 rocket.Founded by Internet and technology mogul Elon Musk, SpaceX claimed it could launch military satellites at a fraction of the cost of ULA, writing that the incumbent launch provider had monopolized the national security launch business in the United States. The suit filed April 30 calls for the launch award to ULA, which was signed last year, to be nullified and opened up to competition.Air Force officials have said they were not notified of the lawsuit before it was filed with the court.”Generally, the person you want to do business with, you don’t sue them,” Shelton said.ULA has responded to SpaceX’s lawsuit, saying the “block buy” of 28 rocket launches by the Air Force helped realize more than $4 billion in cost savings. ULA chief executive Michael Gass said Monday the average cost of a lower capability version of its Atlas 5 rocket — with a performance roughly comparable to SpaceX’s Falcon 9 booster — was $164 million, significantly less than SpaceX claims.Shelton said certification of the Falcon 9 rocket should be completed by December or January.”It’s very difficult to pick up the pace on that,” Shelton said. “It just takes time. It takes money, and it takes people. I think SpaceX would have a hard time going faster than we’re going right now.”Speaking to reporters April 28 in Washington, Musk described the certification reviews as a “paperwork exercise” and said SpaceX’s complaint was specifically directed at the Air Force’s procurement authorities.”Since this is a large multi-year contract, why not wait a few months for the certification process to complete and then do a competition?” Musk asked.Shelton told reporters Tuesday that there was a misconception that the Air Force was dithering on certifying the Falcon 9.”That’s what we find as irritating as anything,” Shelton said. “It’s like we’re not leaning forward. We certainly are. We’re putting a lot of treasure and a lot of people against certification to try to get done as quickly as we can … and to allow them to compete as soon as possible.” File photo of a Falcon 9 rocket launch from Sept. 29, 2013. Credit: SpaceXAir Force officials have said the block buy was essential to achieve cost savings promised by ULA, adding there was no guarantee when SpaceX’s Falcon 9 would be certified.Shelton said the Air Force expected it would need 50 rocket cores to meet its launch needs over the next four years. It committed to purchase 36 of the core from ULA under the 28-launch block buy.Some of the rocket cores will fly on the Delta 4-Heavy rocket, which uses three first stage cores strapped together on a single launch to boost its performance to loft heavier satellites.The Air Force set aside the other 14 cores officials expected to need through 2017 for a competition open to any provider certified to launch national security satellites.”For a variety of reasons, including GPS satellites lasting longer, some budget pressures and some other things, we reduced that to probably seven, and maybe an eighth launch, that we would be able to award competitively,” Shelton said.”Beyond 2017, we believe there’s going to be a fully open competition,” Shelton said. “Getting SpaceX certified allows them to compete for these seven or eight remaining launches, and then sets them up to being ready to compete in a full and open competition beyond ’17.”Even when the Falcon 9 is certified, SpaceX would still be unable to launch some of the military’s heaviest satellites due to the launcher’s performance limitations. ULA’s Atlas 5 and Delta 4 rockets feature strap-on solid rocket boosters, and the Delta 4-Heavy can put more than 28 metric tons into low-altitude orbits, a capability not offered by SpaceX.SpaceX is working on a Falcon Heavy rocket capable of putting up all of the military’s satellites, but will not fly until 2015 and must then undergo its own certification.Shelton was adamant the Air Force would not change its stringent requirements for reliability and mission assurance.”If you look at the history of competition across the board, it can’t help but bring prices down,” Shelton said. “Our overriding objective here is to get national security payloads to space reliably. That has to be front and center of everything we do. By the same token, we know it’s costing a lot — access to space — and we need to drive the price down.”The military’s fleets of communications, navigation, and surveillance satellites are worth billions of dollars. Today’s tight budgets put an even greater emphasis on launch reliability, Shelton said.SpaceX’s flights have so far delivered food, experiments and supplies to the International Space Station, plus several commercial satellites to orbit. Shelton said they don’t compare to Air Force’s most critical missions.”If you look at what NASA was contracted with SpaceX to date, if you show me an interplanetary mission that’s contracted with SpaceX, now we’re talking,” Shelton said. “But that’s not what’s contracted with SpaceX. It is basically commercial resupply to the space station. It is not putting those precious assets on top of that rocket and launching it yet.”NASA engineers the Kennedy Space Center are working through its own certification of the Falcon 9 rocket.Darren Bedell, systems integration manager for NASA’s Launch Services Program, said Tuesday that the space agency has determined all three of the initial Falcon 9 v1.1 missions will count toward the launcher’s certification.”We have deemed those launches to be successful, but we’re now getting into the nitty-gritty to make sure we’re confident in putting a NASA science mission on SpaceX,” Bedell said.NASA is currently certifying the Falcon 9 for medium-risk, or Category 2, NASA science payloads. Officials would not say how many more flights the Falcon 9′s upgraded version are needed before SpaceX completes NASA’s Category 2 certification, citing it as competition-sensitive.Other NASA missions, such as flagship research satellites and most interplanetary probes, require an even lower risk launcher. The Falcon will need to complete more successful missions before officials allow it to launch those spacecraft.A NASA policy document outlining SpaceX’s certification requirements says the space agency requires at least three successful launches of a common rocket configuration, including two successes in a row.According to Bedell, NASA is now in an intensive data and process verification with SpaceX and has just completed a design certification review. The next step is flight hardware and software qualification.NASA aims to complete the certification of the Falcon 9 for medium-risk science missions at least six months before the March 2015 launch of Jason 3, a U.S.-French oceanographic research satellite NASA contracted to launch with SpaceX.NASA, the Air Force and the National Reconnaissance Office developed the strategic tenets behind the process to certify new entrants, of which SpaceX is the first to test the waters. But the organizations are handling the details differently.Unlike NASA, which signed a deal for SpaceX to launch the Jason 3 satellite before it was certified, Shelton said the Air Force might allow SpaceX to submit contract bids pending certification, but would receive no awards until the process is finished.Follow Stephen Clark on Twitter: .John Glenn Mission PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The historic first orbital flight by an American is marked by this commemorative patch for John Glenn and Friendship 7.Final Shuttle Mission PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The crew emblem for the final space shuttle mission is available in our store. Get this piece of history!Celebrate the shuttle programFree shipping to U.S. addresses!This special commemorative patch marks the retirement of NASA’s Space Shuttle Program. Available in our store!Anniversary Shuttle PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!This embroidered patch commemorates the 30th anniversary of the Space Shuttle Program. The design features the space shuttle Columbia’s historic maiden flight of April 12, 1981.Mercury anniversaryFree shipping to U.S. addresses!Celebrate the 50th anniversary of Alan Shephard’s historic Mercury mission with this collectors’ item, the official commemorative embroidered patch.Fallen Heroes Patch CollectionThe official patches from Apollo 1, the shuttle Challenger and Columbia crews are available in the store. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Two commercial missions on Sea Launch’s books for 2011 SPACEFLIGHT NOWPosted: June 8, 2011 PARIS — Two years after filing for bankruptcy, Sea Launch is gearing up for a pair of commercial satellite missions later this year from a mobile ocean-based launch pad and the historic Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. File photo of a Sea Launch Zenit 3SL rocket erected atop the Odyssey launch platform. Credit: Sea LaunchThe launches are planned for the autumn with the Intelsat 18 communications satellite for the Asia-Pacific region and Eutelsat’s Atlantic Bird 7 spacecraft to cover North Africa and the Middle East.Intelsat 18 will blast off as soon as September from the Baikonur Cosmodrome aboard a Zenit 3SLB rocket. Sea Launch netted the Intelsat 18 contract from Space International Services, or SIS, a Russian firm that took over managing the Zenit’s Land Launch operations from Baikonur after Sea Launch filed for bankruptcy in 2009.Sea Launch announced the contract change in a June 2 press release.Intelsat switched its satellite launch to the management of Sea Launch after SIS had trouble procuring rocket hardware in time for a liftoff this year. Sea Launch, with the majority ownership of Russian rocket-builder Energia, says it will support a launch opportunity for Intelsat 18 in the second half of 2011.”We are most pleased that Intelsat came to Sea Launch to provide the launch solution for [Intelsat 18],” said Kjell Karlsen, president of Sea Launch. “This decision reflects our customer’s continued confidence in our renewed capabilities to provide quality launch services on schedule and with maximum flexibility.”Sea Launch is also awaiting the arrival of fresh Zenit 3SL rocket components, which departed the Port of Oktyabrsky in Russia on May 31. The hardware is expected in mid-July at Sea Launch’s home port in Long Beach, Calif., according to Peter Stier, a company spokesperson.The Zenit 3SL’s two lower stages are manufactured by Yuzhmash of Ukraine and a Block DM upper stage from Energia, which is the principal owner of the reorganized Sea Launch company and also oversees the overall Zenit supply chain. File photo of a Land Launch Zenit rocket blasting off from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. Credit: RoscosmosThe shipment includes the Zenit’s two core stages for the company’s next sea-based launch. Two Block DM upper stages are also aboard to be used on two different missions, Stier said.The launch of Atlantic Bird 7 is scheduled between September and December, according to Vanessa O’Connor, a spokesperson for Eutelsat. O’Connor said Sea Launch is the “nominal” provider for Atlantic Bird 7′s launch service.Atlantic Bird 7 will launch from Sea Launch’s Odyssey mobile launch pad, a convered North Sea oil platform that steams from California to a spot in the Pacific Ocean along the equator at 154 degrees west longitude.Sea Launch has ten Zenit vehicles on order, enough to cover the company’s launch manifest through the end of 2013, Karlsen said.”We are very pleased with having achieved yet another important milestone towards the resumption of launch operations later this year,” Karlsen said in a statement.After a 16-month bankruptcy process, Sea Launch reorganized under majority Russian ownership and emerged as a new firm in October. Energia also took over control of Sea Launch’s home port operations in California, which were previously managed by Boeing Co.Sea Launch conducted 30 missions from its Odyssey launch platform between 1999 and 2009. Two of those flights failed to reach orbit.Stier said Sea Launch has nine missions on contract.STS-134 PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The final planned flight of space shuttle Endeavour is symbolized in the official embroidered crew patch for STS-134. Available in our store!Final Shuttle Mission PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The crew emblem for the final space shuttle mission is now available in our store. Get this piece of history!Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.STS-133 PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The final planned flight of space shuttle Discovery is symbolized in the official embroidered crew patch for STS-133. Available in our store!Anniversary Shuttle PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!This embroidered patch commemorates the 30th anniversary of the Space Shuttle Program. The design features the space shuttle Columbia’s historic maiden flight of April 12, 1981.Mercury anniversaryFree shipping to U.S. addresses!Celebrate the 50th anniversary of Alan Shephard’s historic Mercury mission with this collectors’ item, the official commemorative embroidered patch. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Two Russians complete successful spacewalk BY WILLIAM HARWOOD

    September 20th, 2014 at 11:18 pm (#)

  545. South African Rand says:

    Animation shows Cassini firing its engine to enter orbit around Saturn. Credit: NASA TV/Spaceflight NowIf all goes well, Cassini will brake into orbit around Saturn the night of June 30, firing its main engine for a nerve-wracking 96.4 minutes. Another 51-minute rocket firing in late August will raise the low point of Cassini’s orbit and set the stage for a true voyage of discovery. Equipped with state-of-the-art telescopes, an imaging radar system and a battery of other powerful instruments, Cassini will spend at least four years orbiting the sixth planet from the sun, studying its rings in unprecedented detail, making high-resolution movies of its windy atmosphere, charting its magnetic field and mapping a host of icy moons. Saturn’s largest moon, Titan, will get special treatment in January when the European-built Huygens probe now bolted to Cassini’s hull makes a parachute descent to the surface through the moon’s smoggy atmosphere. Bigger than the planet Mercury, Titan is the only moon in the solar system with a thick atmosphere, one in which hydrocarbons fall as rain and liquid ethane pools on its ultra-cold surface. “Imagine a world that’s smaller than Mars and bigger than the planet Mercury, where the air is four times denser at its surface than the air in this room and the surface pressure is about the same as you’d experience at the bottom of a neighborhood swimming pool,” said Jonathan Lunine, a University of Arizona physicist and a member of the Cassini science team. “On that world, the distant sun is never seen and at high noon, things are no brighter than a partly moonlit night on the Earth. “Because of its great distance, the cold is so enormous that water is always frozen out of the atmosphere. Nitrogen is nearly so, but not quite. And the simplest organic molecule, methane, is there to take the place of water as a cloud former, possibly a rain maker and maybe even the stuff of lakes or seas of hydrocarbons. “The methane is lofted hundreds of miles above the surface of this world,” Lunine said before Cassini’s launch in 1997. “It’s cracked open by sunlight and cosmic rays and a menagerie of more complicated organics is produced from the methane and these then float down to the surface to accumulate over time, perhaps to depths of hundreds of meters or more. Volcanism and impacts shape the surface and provide energy to make ever more complex organic molecules in a planet-wide tapestry that is an organic chemist’s dream. “What I have described to you is Titan, the second largest moon in the solar system, nearly the largest. It was partly revealed to us by Voyager 1 in 1980. Through its many instruments, Voyager discovered and characterized a dense atmosphere around this cold world. Yet … Voyager’s cameras could not penetrate the organic haze and so we still do not know what awaits Cassini-Huygens at the end of its journey.” An artist’s concept shows the Huygens craft making its descent to Titan. Credit: ESABut in the years since Cassini’s launch, optical and radar observations from Earth have given scientists at least a hint of what the spacecraft might find. Scientists are convinced lakes or small oceans of liquid hydrocarbons exist on Titan, but not a globe-spanning sea. One way or the other, the European Space Agency’s Huygens probe should resolve the matter, perhaps even splashing down in one of the frigid pools. “Titan is almost certainly not the home of life today,” Lunine said. “But the organic chemical cycles that go on may constitute a chemical laboratory for replaying some of the steps that led to life on Earth. Titan is in some ways the closest analogue we have to the Earth’s environment before life began and this makes Titan very important.” The Cassini mother ship, meanwhile, will fly through 76 ever-changing orbits of Saturn over the next four years, using the gravity of Titan to warp its trajectory, setting up subsequent encounters. Forty-five flybys of Titan are planned, four of the moon Enceladus, two each for Iapetus, Rhea and Tethys and one each for Mimas, Hyperion and Dione. Put another way, Cassini will make more than 50 close passes by seven of Saturn’s 31 known moons. Flyby altitudes will be as low as 310 miles, but Titan encounters will be limited to about 590 miles to avoid possible aerodynamic effects from flying through the extreme upper reaches of its atmosphere. Cassini will use its dish antenna to make radar maps of Titan’s hidden surface. Special filters will be used to permit its cameras to glimpse the surface through specific spectral “windows.” While scientists aren’t sure what they will see, the mission could provide key insights into how life began on Earth. “Probably the most important thing that our generation can do is to understand the evolution of life in our solar system and throughout the universe,” said Charles Elachi, director of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and leader of the Cassini radar experiment. “In a sense, Cassini will write one of those chapters … in the book of how life evolved in our universe.” And throughout the voyage, Cassini’s instruments will study Saturn itself, its rings and its space environment. Workers put final touches on Cassini at Kennedy Space Center prior to launch in 1997. Credit: NASA-KSC”This mission’s objective is a four-year, close-up study of the Saturnian system, including its atmosphere, the magnetosphere surrounding Saturn, those rings, its many icy moons and the large moon, Titan,” said Wesley Huntress, NASA’s associate administrator for space science at the time of Cassini’s launch. “The mission represents a rare opportunity to gain significant insights into major scientific questions about the creation of the solar system, pre-life conditions here on early Earth and just a host of questions about Saturn itself. “Saturn, its rings and its moon system hold clues to understanding the origin of our solar system,” he continued. “Its rings are a system are not too unlike the early solar nebula out of which our own planets formed. The processes that sustain that ring may yield information on processes of planetary formation and this information in turn can help us understand what happens around other stars as well.” Cassini is the most ambitious – and expensive – interplanetary project ever attempted, eclipsing even the dual Mars Viking orbiters and landers in inflation-adjusted total cost. Equipped with three nuclear power sources, 12 instruments, multiple radios, a pair of digital data recorders, two primary computers and more than 50 other subcomputers, Cassini is a marvel of late 20th Century engineering. Standing 22 feet tall and 13 feet wide, the six-ton spacecraft features a 13-foot wide communications and radar antenna, a 40-foot-long magnetometer boom, 22,000 wire connections, 7.5 miles of electrical cabling, 82 radioisotope heater units to keep its internal systems warm, 16 hydrazine thrusters for coarse attitude control, four reaction wheels for finer, gyroscopic attitude control and two main engines (one is a backup) for major course changes. This graphic highlights some of the key items on Cassini. Credit: NASA/JPLVirtually every major system and subsystem has redundant backup hardware and an army of computer programmers has developed complex software sequences that will enable Cassini to detect and correct faults on its own, without intervention from Earth. That’s not an option when it can take nearly 90 minutes for radio signals, traveling at 186,000 miles per second, to reach flight controllers, informing them of a problem. “At Saturn, worst case, there’s an hour and 30 minutes one-way light time,” said Julie Webster, lead spacecraft engineer at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif. “So by the time we send up a command and get confirmation back, it’s often three hours round-trip light time. The spacecraft has to be designed to take care of itself completely for a period of up to two weeks. And that’s for normal operations.” Said Lunine: “We’ve never sent a spacecraft with the kind of instrumentation, the variety and number of instruments and the power of the instruments to the outer solar system prior to Cassini. “It’s really a tour de force,” he said in an interview. “And it’s going to be, if all goes well, an incredibly exciting four years in the Saturn system. I think we’ll learn that this is more than just a solar system within a solar system. There are just things unique about the Saturn system – the rings, Titan, other aspects – that will make it an incredibly interesting place to explore. … Cassini should really knock our socks off.”MISSION PREVIEWStargaze II DVDThe Stargaze II DVD has arrived! It features over 65 minutes of all new videos of the universe with newly-composed dolby digital and DTS 5.1 Channel surround sound music. Choose your store: – – – Solar system poster This new poster is popular for classrooms and children’s bedrooms. It includes interesting facts and figures about the planets and their moons. Choose your store: – – – Apollo 15 DVD Relive on DVD the journey of Apollo 15, one of the great explorations of our time. This unique six-disc DVD set contains all the available television and 16mm film footage from the mission.Choose your store: – – – Shuttle patchesCollect the official mission patches for the first ten space shuttle flights and save off the regular price. Introducing the Space Shuttle Patch Collection.Choose your store: – – – | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Spaceflight Now +Premium video content for our Spaceflight Now Plus subscribers.Cassini updateMission managers and scientists provide an update on the Cassini mission and preview the spacecraft’s arrival at Saturn during this news conference from June 29. (51min 58sec file)Phoebe science briefingScientists report scientific results from the Cassini spacecraft’s close-up examination of Saturn’s moon Phoebe. (31min 53sec file)Phoebe flyby previewThis animation shows Cassini during its encounter with the tiny moon Phoebe on the route to Saturn. (42sec file)Cassini previewThe Cassini spacecraft’s arrival at Saturn is previewed in this detailed news conference from NASA Headquarters on June 3. (50min 01sec file)Saturn arrival explainedCassini’s make-or-break engine firing to enter orbit around Saturn is explained with graphics and animation. Expert narration is provided by Cassini program manager Robert Mitchell. (3min 33sec file)Cassini scientists ready for first close Titan flyby UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA NEWS RELEASEPosted: October 25, 2004The Cassini spacecraft is heading for its first close encounter with Saturn’s moon Titan. University of Arizona scientists on the mission say Cassini will get its first real glimpse of Titan surface geology and digest its first gulp of rich Titan air.The Oct. 26 flyby is the first of Cassini’s 45 close Titan passes over thenext four years. Scientists will combine unique types of informationfrom a dozen instruments on the orbiter for new insights on Titan,Saturn’s largest and most exotic moon. The NASA spacecraft will deploy theEuropean SpaceAgency’s Huygens probe to Titan in December. The probe,carrying six instruments, will descend through Titan’s atmosphere inJanuary 2005.UA’s Cassini scientists will be at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory inPasadena, Calif., this week for this first close Titan flyby.Cassini imaging cameras will photograph Titan every 15 minutes or soduring approach, said Alfred S. McEwen, a member of the Cassini imagingteam. “We’ll get a movie of Titan’s very interesting clouds. They form anddissipate and blow in the wind. Some of them are strange shapes andstreaks and things we really don’t understand.”Then, as we get closer, we’ll start mapping. We’ll make a full disk,four-color mosaic. We’ll see the surface, we’ll see the limb hazes,we’ll see whatever clouds there are,” McEwen said. “These are things we’llmake posters of, and that everyone will have on their walls.”"As we get closer and closer, we map specific regions at higher andhigher resolution. This includes a mosaic over the Huygens landing site.It should be our best look at that location,” McEwen said.Cassini cameras will continue snapping high-resolution pictures ofdifferent Titan terrains as the spacecraft zooms on to Titan’s night side.Cassini imaging operations involve an international team of scientistsheaded by Carolyn Porco, UA adjunct professor of planetary sciences.Porco directs the Space Science Institute in Boulder, Colo. Most of theuplink and downlink imaging tasks are handled at the Boulder facility.”The Titan imaging atmosphere observations for the upcoming flybyhave been planned by scientists at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory andsequenced in Boulder,” Porco said. “But the very close observations, thosewith the goal of mapping the Titan surface at between 50 and 200 metersper pixel, have all been planned, designed and sequenced by our teammembers at the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory. It’s a very challengingtask to plan imaging sequences during a close flyby when the geometry ischanging rapidly. And they’ve done an excellent job. We’re in for quite ashow.”Robert H. Brown leads Cassini’s visual and infrared mapping spectrometer(VIMS) team, based at UA’s Lunar and Planetary Lab in Tucson. “We know VIMSwill see through the haze to Titan’s surface,” Brown said. “At closestapproach – 1,200 kilometers (745 miles) – we’ll have 600-meter-pixelresolution. We’ll be able to see very small geologic features. We’llget very high resolution looks at atmospheric phenomena, too. But frommy perspective, the really important thing about this encounter isreally digging down below the atmosphere and getting our first realglimpse of Titan geology.”We don’t know what we’re going to encounter there. I suppose you canassume we’ll see common geologic forms like mountains and craters andtectonic faults, maybe even volcanism,” Brown said.Titan is possibly the land of a thousand hydrocarbon lakes. UA planetarysciences and physics Professor Jonathan I. Lunine theorized as agraduate student more than 20 years ago that Titan could have liquidhydrocarbon seas or lakes. Lunine is the only U.S. scientist selected bythe European Space Agency for its three-member Huygens probeinterdisciplinary science team. He and Ralph Lorenz of UA’s Lunar andPlanetary Laboratory also are members of the radar team. Cassini will getits first radar images of Titan on tomorrow’s flyby.”If either the radar or VIMS system on the orbiter take images ofliquid-filled crater basins, that to me would be very, veryexciting,” Lunine said. Scientists would then have evidence that surfacelakes are a source and sink for methane in Titan’s hydrologic cycle.VIMS will see Titan’s hydrocarbon pools, if they exist and aren’thidden by some low-lying fog or other strange phenomenon, Brown said.VIMS team member Caitlin Griffith said, “Closest approach will giveus the most exciting VIMS data because we have that clear view down to thesurface. We want to isolate different terrain types and start seeingtexture.”When the Cassini spacecraft flew within 339,000 kilometers (210,600miles) of Titan in July, VIMS was so far away that everything it saw wassmeared over 150 kilometers (93 miles), Griffith said. “That’s like takinga picture of Arizona but smearing all of Tucson with all of Phoenix andbeyond, towards Flagstaff. This time, we’ll be close enough to isolate andidentify lakes and mountains, and maybe see shadows cast at differentillumination angles.”Cassini won’t just look at Titan next Tuesday. Cassini’s Ion andNeutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) will taste mysterious, subtle flavors inTitan’s atmosphere, team member and UA planetary sciences Professor RogerYelle said.”Our instrument will scoop up a breath of Titan’s puffy atmosphereduring the flyby,” Yelle said. The experiment will measure how manymolecules of different masses it got in the gulp of Titan’s mostlynitrogen, methane-laced atmosphere.”Scientists with telescopes have so far seen 19 different chemicalmolecules in Titan’s atmosphere — more than in any other solar systembody’s atmosphere except Earth’s,” Yelle said. Laboratory experiments showthere are probably many more kinds of chemicals in Titan’s atmosphere, headded.Yelle and other INMS scientists want to identify the big, complicated andinteresting hydrogen-and-carbon-containing molecules because theyare part of a planetary system that possibly rains methane and producesethane ponds. “Titan is a big laboratory where you get to play withatmospheres on planetary scales,” Yelle said.In addition, Yelle said, he is fascinated by Titan chemistry as ascientist interested in the origins of life.Learning more about how carbon-containing, or “organic,” moleculesform doesn’t explain how DNA came to be, Yelle said. “A single strand ofDNA contains about 3 billion nucleotides that if stretched out, would besomething like 1.7 meters long. We’re trying to understand moleculeswith just 10 or 12 atoms.”But Titan’s hydrocarbon chemistry holds clues that explain the veryfirst steps of how nature assembled organic molecules, which are theprecursors to amino acids, the building blocks of life, he said.The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, theEuropean Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet PropulsionLaboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology inPasadena, manages the Cassini-Huygens mission for NASA’s Office of SpaceScience, Washington, D.C. The Cassni orbiter and its two onboard cameraswere designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging team is basedat the Space Science Institute, Boulder, Colo. The visual and infraredmapping spectrometer team is based at the University of Arizona Lunar andPlanetary Laboratory, Tucson, Ariz.Ares 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Expedition 21The official embroidered patch for the International Space Station Expedition 21 crew is now available from our stores.Hubble PatchThe official embroidered patch for mission STS-125, the space shuttle’s last planned service call to the Hubble Space Telescope, is available for purchase. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Cassini sees Atlas, Pandora and Janus orbiting Saturn CASSINI PHOTO RELEASEPosted: November 17, 2004Saturn hosts its own miniature solar system, with an entourage of more than 30 moons. This image shows Saturn’s A and F rings, along with three of the moons that orbit close to them. Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science InstituteDownload larger image version From innermost to outermost, tiny Atlas (32 kilometers, or 20 miles, across) orbits just outside of the bright A ring and is seen above center in this view. Prometheus (102 kilometers, or 63 miles, across) is visible near lower right. Prometheus and its smaller cohort, Pandora, shepherd the thin, knotted F ring. Finally Janus (181 kilometers, or 112 miles, across) can be seen near lower left. Janus shares its orbit with the moon Epimetheus. Density waves due to Janus cause some of the bright bands seen in the A ring in this image. Prometheus and Atlas also produce waves in the rings, but their wave regions are too narrow to be seen here. The interactions of the moons with each other and the rings are a major target of study for the Cassini mission. The planet’s shadow stretches all the way across the main rings in this view. The shadow has an oval shape at present, but over the next few years will become more rectangular as the planet orbits the Sun and the angle at which sunlight strikes the rings decreases.The image was taken with the Cassini spacecraft narrow angle camera on Oct. 6, 2004, at a distance of 6.4 million kilometers (4 million miles) from Saturn through a filter sensitive to wavelengths of visible red light. The image scale is 38 kilometers (24 miles) per pixel. The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini-Huygens mission for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras were designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging team is based at the Space Science Institute, Boulder, Colo. Cassini posterJust in time for the Cassini spacecraft’s arrival at Saturn, this new poster celebrates the mission to explore the ringed planet and its moons. 2005 CalendarThe 2005 edition of the Universe of the Hubble Space Telescope calendar is available from our U.S. store and will soon be available worldwide. This 12×12-inch calendar features spectacular images from the orbiting observatory.Moon panoramaTaken by Apollo 14 commander Alan Shepard, this panoramic poster shows lunar module pilot Edgar Mitchell as a brilliant Sun glare reflects off the lunar module Antares.Mars Rover mission patchA mission patch featuring NASA’s Mars Exploration Rover is now available from the Astronomy Now Store.Apollo 11 special patchSpecial collectors’ patch marking the 35th anniversary of the historic Apollo 11 moon landing is now available.Choose your store: – | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Cassini sees crescent Rhea CASSINI PHOTO RELEASEPosted: July 21, 2004The first artificial satellite in the Saturn system, the Cassini spacecraft, returned images of the natural moons following a successful insertion into orbit. This is an unmagnified view of the moon Rhea. Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science InstituteDownload a larger image version With a diameter of 1,528 kilometers (950 miles) across, Rhea is Saturn’s second largest moon. The Voyager spacecraft found that like Dione, Rhea has one of its hemispheres covered with bright, wispy streaks which may be water frost. This view shows a heavily cratered surface, and thus it is most likely ancient. Many of the craters visible here have central peaks. Cassini soon will look for clues to help unlock the moon’s geologic history. The spacecraft is slated to fly by Rhea at a distance of only 500 kilometers (311 miles) on Nov. 26, 2005. The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft narrow angle camera on July 2, 2004, from a distance of about 990,000 kilometers (615,000 miles) from Rhea and at a Sun-Rhea-spacecraft, or phase angle of about 109 degrees. The image scale is 6 kilometers (4 miles) per pixel. The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini-Huygens mission for NASA’s Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras, were designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging team is based at the Space Science Institute, Boulder, Colo. 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This false color image of two density waves in Saturn’s A ring was made from the stellar occultation observed by Cassini’s ultraviolet imaging spectrograph. Bright areas indicate the denser regions of the rings. The bright bands in the left part of the image are the “peaks” of a density wave caused by gravitational stirring of the rings by Saturn’s moon, Janus. A smaller density wave in the right half of the image is produced by the moon Pandora. The ultraviolet imaging spectrograph observed the brightness of the star Xi Ceti as the rings passed in front of it, and the flickering of the starlight was converted into the ring density depicted by the image. The image represents a distance of about 724 kilometers (450 miles), and the smallest features are about one-half mile across. Credit: NASA/JPL/University of Colorado at BoulderDownload larger image version Joshua Colwell of CU-Boulder’s Laboratory for Atmospheric andSpace Physics said the observations were made with UltravioletImaging Spectrograph, or UVIS, when Cassini was about 4.2 millionmiles, or 6.75 million kilometers, from Saturn in July. Saturnorbits the Sun roughly 1 billion miles distant from Earth.Colwell and his colleagues used a technique known as stellaroccultation to image the ring particles, pointing the instrumentthrough the rings towards the star, Xi Ceti. The fluctuations ofstarlight passing through the rings provide information on thestructure and dynamics of the particles within them, said Colwell, aUVIS science team member.He likened the Saturn system to a mammoth phonograph record,with the planet in the middle and the rings stretching outward morethan 40,000 miles, or 64,000 kilometers. The size of the ringparticles varies from dust specks to mountains, with most rangingbetween the size of marbles and boulders, he said.The Cassini observations show dramatic variations in thenumber of ring particles over very short distances, Colwell said.The particles in individual ringlets are bunched closely together,with the amount of material dropping abruptly at the ringlet edge.”What we see with the new observations is that some of thering edges are very sharp,” said Colwell. The sharp edges of smallringlets are especially evident in the C ring and in the so-calledCassini Division on either side of the bright B ring, Saturn’slargest ring.The Cassini observations with UVIS show that the distancebetween the presence and absence of orbiting material at some ringedges can be as little as 160 feet, or 50 meters, about the length ofa typical commercial jetliner, he said.The sharp edges illustrate the dynamics that constrain thering processes against their natural tendency to spread into nearby,empty space, said Colwell. “Nature abhors a vacuum, so it is likelygravity from a nearby small moon and ongoing meteoroid collisionsconfine the particles in the ring.”Colwell presented his findings at the 36th annual Division ofPlanetary Sciences Meeting held in Louisville, Ken. Nov. 8 to Nov 12.The stellar occultation process using UVIS also shows veryhigh-resolution views of several density waves visible in the rings,including a previously unstudied one, he said. Density waves areripple-like features in the rings caused by the influence of Saturn’smoons — in this case, the small moon, Janus.”Small moons near Saturn’s rings stir the ring particles withtheir gravitational pull,” Colwell said. At certain locations in therings, known as resonances, the orbit of a particular moon matches upwith the orbit of certain ring particles in a way that enhances thestirring process, he said.The density waves, which resemble a tightly wound spiral muchlike the groove in a phonograph record, slowly propagate away fromthe resonance toward the perturbing moon, he said. “This can createa wave in the ring that looks like a ripple in a pond,” said Colwell.”The shapes of these wave peaks and troughs help scientistsunderstand whether the ring particles are hard and bouncy, like agolf ball, or soft and less bouncy, like a snowball,” Colwell said.He noted that a density wave analysis by scientists involved inNASA’s Voyager 2 mission that visited Saturn in 1981 were used todetermine the mass and thickness of the planet’s rings.The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA,the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The JetPropulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute ofTechnology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini-Huygens mission forNASA’s Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C.CU-Boulder Professor Larry Esposito of LASP is the principalinvestigator for the $12.5 million UVIS instrument, designed andbuilt for JPL at CU-Boulder.Cassini posterJust in time for the Cassini spacecraft’s arrival at Saturn, this new poster celebrates the mission to explore the ringed planet and its moons. 2005 CalendarThe 2005 edition of the Universe of the Hubble Space Telescope calendar is available from our U.S. store and will soon be available worldwide. This 12×12-inch calendar features spectacular images from the orbiting observatory.Moon panoramaTaken by Apollo 14 commander Alan Shepard, this panoramic poster shows lunar module pilot Edgar Mitchell as a brilliant Sun glare reflects off the lunar module Antares.Mars Rover mission patchA mission patch featuring NASA’s Mars Exploration Rover is now available from the Astronomy Now Store.Apollo 11 special patchSpecial collectors’ patch marking the 35th anniversary of the historic Apollo 11 moon landing is now available.Choose your store: – | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Cassini sees the moon Tethys: The Sea Goddess CASSINI PHOTO RELEASEPosted: July 23, 2004Like a half-full moon, cratered Tethys hangs before the Cassini spacecraft in this narrow angle camera view taken on July 3, 2004. Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science InstituteDownload a larger image version Voyager images showed a large fracture on Tethys about 750 kilometers (470 miles) long (not seen in this view). Cassini will investigate this and other features on Tethys during two planned flybys, the first occurring on September 24, 2005. Tethys is 1,060 kilometers (659 miles) across. The image was taken in visible light from a distance of 1.7 million kilometers (1 million miles) from Tethys and at a Sun-Tethys-spacecraft, or phase angle of about 97 degrees. The image scale is 10 kilometers (6 miles) per pixel. The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini-Huygens mission for NASA’s Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras, were designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging team is based at the Space Science Institute, Boulder, Colo. Ares 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Expedition 21The official embroidered patch for the International Space Station Expedition 21 crew is now available from our stores.Hubble PatchThe official embroidered patch for mission STS-125, the space shuttle’s last planned service call to the Hubble Space Telescope, is available for purchase. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Cassini shows the dark side of Saturn’s moon Dione CASSINI PHOTO RELEASEPosted: July 19, 2004The icy, cratered surface of Saturn’s moon Dione shows more than just its sunlit side in these two processed versions of the same image. Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science InstituteDownload a larger image version The view at left, with only mild enhancement, shows a romantic crescent with large craters visible. The contrast in the version at the right has been greatly enhanced to show the side of Dione lit faintly by reflected light from Saturn. A similar phenomenon can be seen from Earth, when the Moon’s dark side is visible due to “earthshine.” The crater at the top of the image appears to have a sunlit central peak in the enhanced view — a common characteristic of craters on Dione as seen in Voyager images. Slight variations in brightness on the moon’s dark side hint at the bright curved linear streaks, seen by Voyager. These streaks are thought to be deposits of water ice. The image was taken with the Cassini spacecraft narrow angle camera on July 2, 2004, from a distance of about 1.4 million kilometers (860,000 thousand miles) from Dione, at a Sun-Dione-spacecraft, or phase angle of about 119 degrees. The image scale is 8 kilometers (5 miles) per pixel. Dione’s diameter is 1,118 kilometers (695 miles) across. The images have been magnified by a factor of two to aid visibility. The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini-Huygens mission for NASA’s Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras, were designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging team is based at the Space Science Institute, Boulder, Colo. Ares 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Expedition 21The official embroidered patch for the International Space Station Expedition 21 crew is now available from our stores.Hubble PatchThe official embroidered patch for mission STS-125, the space shuttle’s last planned service call to the Hubble Space Telescope, is available for purchase. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Cassini takes picture of departing Huygens probe CASSINI PHOTO RELEASEPosted: December 26, 2004 Credit: NASA/JPLDownload larger image version The Cassini spacecraft snapped this image of the European Space Agency’s Huygens probe about 12 hours after its release from the orbiter. The probe successfully detached from Cassini on Dec. 24, 2004, and is on course for its January 14 encounter with Titan. The Huygens probe will remain dormant until the onboard timer wakes it up just before the probe reaches Titan’s upper atmosphere on Jan. 14, 2005. Then it will begin a dramatic plunge through Titan’s murky atmosphere, tasting its chemical makeup and composition as it descends to touch down on its surface. The data gathered during this 2-1/2 hour descent will be transmitted from the probe to the Cassini orbiter.Afterward, Cassini will point its antenna to Earth and relay the data through NASA’s Deep Space Network to JPL and on to the European Space Agency’s Space Operations Center in Darmstadt, Germany, which serves as the operations center for the Huygens probe mission. From this control center, ESA engineers will be tracking the probe and scientists will be standing by to process the data from the probe’s six instruments. Credit: NASA/JPLDownload larger image version The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the mission for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras were designed, developed and assembled at JPL.Ares 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Expedition 21The official embroidered patch for the International Space Station Expedition 21 crew is now available from our stores.Hubble PatchThe official embroidered patch for mission STS-125, the space shuttle’s last planned service call to the Hubble Space Telescope, is available for purchase. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Cassini spacecraft’s solar conjunction ends CASSINI PHOTO RELEASEPosted: July 12, 2004The Cassini spacecraft emerged from behind the Sun today after being in solar conjunction since July 5. The most recent spacecraft telemetry was acquired from the Deep Space Network’s Goldstone tracking station near Barstow, Calif., today. The spacecraft is in excellent health and operating normally.Just before Cassini began its transit behind the Sun, it snapped pictures of Saturn’s moonsMimas, Tethys, Rhea and Iapetus. These and other new pictures from Saturn can be found as raw images at .Solar conjunction occurs when the Sun is between the spacecraft and Earth. During this time, the spacecraft conducts only limited science observations. Command and downlink capability is reduced to a minimum, with an uplink command file consisting of 10 commands sent every five minutes, 10 to 20 times a day. The purpose of this test is to assess the spaceraft’s ability to receive commands from Earth when the signal path goes so close to the Sun.The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini-Huygens mission for NASA’s Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL designed, developed and assembled the Cassini orbiter.Ares 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Expedition 21The official embroidered patch for the International Space Station Expedition 21 crew is now available from our stores.Hubble PatchThe official embroidered patch for mission STS-125, the space shuttle’s last planned service call to the Hubble Space Telescope, is available for purchase. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Cassini spacecraft executes crucial rocket firing BY WILLIAM HARWOOD

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    Guests feel as if they’re camping in the tropics, with campsites surrounded by palm, mango and avocado trees. Although it’s close to Everglades National Park, guests can keep occupied on-site with shuffleboard, basketball and horseshoes. Rental options vary from cabins to a bunkhouse that sleeps up to 16. 305-233-5300;Food is an essential component of travel, as regional tastes shape and define our experiences. We’re saluting the delicious cultures and culinary traditions that appeal to visitors from coast to coast in our Readers’ Choice contest for Best Specialty Food Festival.

    September 20th, 2014 at 11:30 pm (#)

  570. Mein Konto says:

    September 20th, 2014 at 11:31 pm (#)

  571. Anonymous says:

    More than 900 prisoners at a nearby medium-security prison, including murderers, rapists and other serious offenders, were evacuated overnight, because of heavy smoke from the blaze. The prisoners were transferred by bus and van, 200 at a time, throughout the night from the Colorado Territorial Correctional Facility, built in 1871. The prison also includes an infirmary and some prisoners use wheelchairs and canes.

    September 20th, 2014 at 11:32 pm (#)

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    Bloomberg at the time lauded Kraft for reducing sodium in its Kraft Singles American Slices by 18 percent and Subway for getting rid of some sodium in two of their sandwiches, including his favorite Italian BLT. Other popular foods included were Unilver’s Ragu Old World Style Traditional Tomato Sauce and Nabisco’s Teddy Grahams Honey snacks.

    September 20th, 2014 at 11:32 pm (#)

  573. UGG Botas Jimmy Choo says:

    John Dickerson: And what hope should they have that once we get through this presidential election, anything will change?

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    September 20th, 2014 at 11:33 pm (#)

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    September 20th, 2014 at 11:35 pm (#)

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    Among Republicans, the level of support is more difficult to gauge. The four GOP members of the “gang of eight” are likely to support the bill, absent any dramatic changes, and Sen. Orrin Hatch, R-Utah, added his own support by voting to pass the bill through the Judiciary Committee, though he cautioned that his vote for final passage is contingent on the fate of several amendments he plans to introduce during the floor debate.

    September 20th, 2014 at 11:35 pm (#)

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    Dr. Timothy Henrich, an associate physician at Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston, said at the International AIDS Society conference in Kuala Lumpur that the men are no longer taking AIDS drugs. Currently, the first patient has been off treatments for 15 weeks and the other has been off for seven weeks, reported.

    September 20th, 2014 at 11:36 pm (#)

  579. UGG Classic Botas says:

    He added: “The views that are well intentioned have been read, seen and noted and the messages have been received.”

    September 20th, 2014 at 11:36 pm (#)

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    Price: Well you can get folks covered through the tax code – tax deductions, tax credits, refundable credits, advancable refundable credits so that every single American has the financial wherewithal to purchase coverage that they want for themselves and their family, not that the government wants for them. Portability: you ought not lose your insurance if you change your job or you lose your job. But you don’t have to have the government in charge to solve that challenge, all you need to do is to say, regardless of who’s paying for your health coverage, you own the coverage, you can take it with you like a 401k plan, and then we can save hundreds of billions of dollars in health care by ending the practice of defensive medicine. You need robust lawsuit abuse reform, which was completely ignored by the president and his party.

    September 20th, 2014 at 11:37 pm (#)

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    NL Rookie of the Year

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    I acknowledge that there are some people who can’t work a minute longer and need to start their benefits right away. But this doesn’t describe the circumstances of the entire three-quarters of Americans who start their Social Security benefits before they reach the full retirement age.

    September 20th, 2014 at 11:39 pm (#)

  584. Moncler Chaquetas Mujeres says:

    Of , Boulud says we’ve passed the food truck phase, we are phasing out of garage restaurants, and he hopes the city’s landmarks begin to trend. “New York has to protect its landmarks,” says Boulud. “It’s important to do that. I can never conceive of a birthday or occasion without the Four Seasons. When I first arrived in 1982, the director said he’d show me real American food and took me there.”

    September 20th, 2014 at 11:40 pm (#)

  585. Ugg Warm says:

    Tall Chief RV and Camping Resort

    September 20th, 2014 at 11:40 pm (#)

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    3. Visit Fort Laramie National Historic Site during the annual Fur-Trading Days, Wyoming.

    September 20th, 2014 at 11:41 pm (#)

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    In 1999, she moved to the Atlanta Bureau, working with CBS News Correspondent Byron Pitts covering the southeast and 2000 campaign, including the presidential recount in Tallahassee.

    September 20th, 2014 at 11:45 pm (#)

  588. Enfants Timberland Roll Top says:

    South Korea in April proposed government-level talks about the factory complex and on Thursday suggested holding ministerial talks in Seoul on Wednesday. But the North Korean statement said that working-level talks are needed before any higher-level meetings “in the light of the prevailing situation in which the bilateral relations have been stalemated for years and mistrust has reached the extremity.”

    September 20th, 2014 at 11:45 pm (#)

  589. Meilleures ventes says:

    Washington’s top worry is North Korea’s nuclear weapons program. Pyongyang is estimated to have a handful of crude nuclear devices.SEOUL, South Korea North Korea on Friday proposed working-level talks with South Korea to be held in a border city on Sunday as the rivals look to mend ties that have plunged during recent years amid hardline stances by both countries.

    September 20th, 2014 at 11:45 pm (#)

  590. Chemise Gucci says:

    But, Baker confirmed, “[The baby] is healthy and Kim is doing well…There’s a great sense of relief. Everyone is very happy for her and Kim is relieved [because] this was a very stressful time.”

    September 20th, 2014 at 11:46 pm (#)

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    September 21st, 2014 at 12:20 am (#)

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    September 21st, 2014 at 12:38 am (#)

  593. Bambini Nike Air Max 90 says:

    “I can’t do that,” he said. “I’d rather be sitting up.”

    September 21st, 2014 at 12:45 am (#)

  594. Nike Air Force 1 Low maschi says:

    Court will recess for the Fourth of July holiday Thursday and re-convene on Friday. Prosecutor Bernie de la Rionda said in court Wednesday that the state will rest their case by “Friday morning at the latest.”(CBS)The mother of slain Florida teenager Trayvon Martin said she was “stunned” at Saturday’s acquittal of George Zimmerman, the former neighborhood watch captain who had been charged in their son’s shooting death.

    September 21st, 2014 at 12:45 am (#)

  595. Nike Roshe Run Mid says:

    Officials in Germany and the European Union issued calm but firm complaints Monday over two National Security Agency programs that target suspicious foreign messages — potentially including phone numbers, email, images, video and other online communications transmitted through U.S. providers. The chief British diplomat felt it necessary to try to assure Parliament that the spy programs do not encroach on U.K. privacy laws.

    September 21st, 2014 at 12:45 am (#)

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    The other reason: He just can’t imagine going out lying down.

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    Then what’s the healthiest way for an upcoming bride to lose weight? Aziz says to plan ahead and eat a balanced diet and exercise. He said people should lose no more than 2 pounds a week to ensure healthy dieting habits, and when it comes to crash diets, a bride-to-be might wind up in an emergency room on her wedding day.

    September 21st, 2014 at 2:26 am (#)

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    The EWG’s new , looked at 1,400 sunscreens and similar products designed to protect consumers from ultraviolet radiation. The report found most of the sunscreens meet the FDA’s new rules, which include bans on terms like “waterproof” — which regulators consider misleading — and requirements that sunscreens filter out both ultraviolet A and B rays. Previously some products only blocked UVB rays, which cause most sunburn, while providing little protection against UVA rays that pose the greatest risk of skin cancer and wrinkles.

    September 21st, 2014 at 2:26 am (#)

  599. Jordan 7 says:

    Justice Elena Kagan: Congress surely has within its authority to decide, rather than at the point of sale, given an insurance-based mechanism, it makes sense to regulate it earlier. It’s just a matter of timing.

    September 21st, 2014 at 2:26 am (#)

  600. Uomo Nike Free Run 3 says:

    According to Joyce, the FBI was able to stop “the first core al Qaeda plot since 9/11, directed from Pakistan,” thanks to information collected through these controversial programs, which is authorized under section 702 of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act.

    September 21st, 2014 at 2:26 am (#)

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